A SPARQL Extension for Generating RDF from Heterogeneous Formats

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10249)


RDF aims at being the universal abstract data model for structured data on the Web. While there is effort to convert data in RDF, the vast majority of data available on the Web does not conform to RDF. Indeed, exposing data in RDF, either natively or through wrappers, can be very costly. Furthermore, in the emerging Web of Things, resource constraints of devices prevent from processing RDF graphs. Hence one cannot expect that all the data on the Web be available as RDF anytime soon. Several tools can generate RDF from non-RDF data, and transformation or mapping languages have been designed to offer more flexible solutions (GRDDL, XSPARQL, R2RML, RML, CSVW, etc.). In this paper, we introduce a new language, SPARQL-Generate, that generates RDF from: (i) a RDF Dataset, and (ii) a set of documents in arbitrary formats. As SPARQL-Generate is designed as an extension of SPARQL 1.1, it can provably: (i) be implemented on top on any existing SPARQL engine, and (ii) leverage the SPARQL extension mechanism to deal with an open set of formats. Furthermore, we show evidence that (iii) it can be easily learned by knowledge engineers that know SPARQL 1.1, and (iv) our first naive open source implementation performs better than the reference implementation of RML for big transformations.


Generate SPARQL Queries SPARQL Engine JSONPath (JSON) Italicized Clause Basic Graph Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Arenas, M., Bertails, A., Prud’hommeaux, E., Sequeda, J.: A direct mapping of relational data to RDF. W3C Recommendation, W3C, 27 September 2012Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Connolly, D.: Gleaning resource descriptions from dialects of languages (GRDDL). W3C Recommendation, W3C, 11 September 2007Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Das, S., Sundara, S., Cyganiak, R.: R2RML: RDB to RDF mapping language. W3C Recommendation, W3C, 27 September 2012Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dell’Aglio, D., Polleres, A., Lopes, N., Bischof, S.: Querying the web of data with XSPARQL 1.1. In: Proceedings of the ISWC Developers Workshop 2014, Co-located with the 13th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2014), Riva del Garda, Italy (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dimou, A., Sande, M.V., Colpaert, P., Verborgh, R., Mannens, E., Van de Walle, R.: RML: a generic language for integrated RDF mappings of heterogeneous data. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, Co-located with the 23rd International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2014), Seoul, Korea (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harris, S., Seaborne, A.: SPARQL 1.1 query language. W3C Recommendation, W3C, 21 March 2013Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hert, M., Reif, G., Gall, H.C.: A comparison of RDB-to-RDF mapping languages. In: Proceedings the 7th International Conference on Semantic Systems, I-SEMANTICS 2011, Graz, Austria, pp. 25–32 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Junior, A.C., Debruyne, C., O’Sullivan, D.: Incorporating functions in mappings to facilitate the uplift of CSV files into RDF. In: Sack, H., Rizzo, G., Steinmetz, N., Mladenić, D., Auer, S., Lange, C. (eds.) ESWC 2016. LNCS, vol. 9989, pp. 55–59. Springer, Cham (2016). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47602-5_12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lefrançois, M., Zimmermann, A.: Supporting arbitrary custom datatypes in RDF and SPARQL. In: Sack, H., Blomqvist, E., d’Aquin, M., Ghidini, C., Ponzetto, S.P., Lange, C. (eds.) ESWC 2016. LNCS, vol. 9678, pp. 371–386. Springer, Cham (2016). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-34129-3_23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lopes, N., Bischof, S., Polleres, A.: On the semantics of heterogeneous querying of relational, XML, and RDF data with XSPARQL. In: Proceedings of the 15th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence - Computational Logic with Applications Track (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Polleres, A., Krennwallner, T., Lopes, N., Kopecký, J., Decker, S.: XSPARQL language specification. W3C Member Submission, W3C, 20 January 2009Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tandy, J., Herman, I., Kellogg, G.: Generating RDF from tabular data on the web. W3C Recommendation, W3C, 17 December 2015Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Williams, S.: Mapping between URIs and internet media types. TAG Finding, W3C, 27 May 2002Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Univ Lyon, MINES Saint-Étienne, CNRS, Laboratoire Hubert Curien UMR 5516Saint-ÉtienneFrance

Personalised recommendations