Geo-Referencing System

  • Dilip KumarEmail author
  • R. B. Singh
  • Ranjeet Kaur
Part of the Sustainable Development Goals Series book series (SDGS)


At this point, you have learnt about the basic concept of the database in the GIS environment. The aim of this chapter is to understand our Earth’s reference system and how we can manage our database in the real coordinate system to locate Earth’s features. After reading this chapter you should be able to understand the following:
  • Needs of the geo-reference system

  • The Earth’s reference system and its characteristics

  • Coordinate systems and their types

  • Map projection, mostly used in India—polyconic, Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC) and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)


Coordinate system Datum Flattening Map projection UTM Non-perspective projection 


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  4. Singh RL, Singh PB (2009) Elements of practical geography. Kalyani Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  5. Snyder JP (1987) Map projection–a working manual. United States Government Printing Office, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG  2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Evening CollegeUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Delhi School of EconomicsUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Geography, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Evening CollegeUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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