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Pathways to Wellbeing—Low Carbon Challenge to Live Virtuously and Well: Participatory Design and Education on Mitigation, Adaptation, Governance and Accountability

Part of the Contemporary Systems Thinking book series (CST)

Abstract

The impact of climate change has been underestimated and the way in which built capital is valued at the expense of social and environmental capital has resulted in development and urbanization processes that threaten food, energy and water security. These issues were discussed and raised at a previous conference on sustainability hosted with Universitas Nasional in 2015, Jakarta where I presented a plenary paper. This issue was also addressed by delegates from the West Java Provincial Government who attended a 10-day leadership workshop at Flinders University. Workshops at the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Religion and Ministry of Social Affairs in 2013 and 2014 and workshops with members of the Indonesian Research Consortium in 2016 have resulted in establishing the basis for this research. This research is in several stages and this is stage one in Indonesia. The objective is to develop a way to enhance the management of carbon footprints by participants. This chapter discusses the following: ∙ Design and preparation for a participatory action research project based on engagement with staff at Universitas Nasionale, Padjadjaran, Indonesian State Islamic University and West Java Provincial Council and Wirasoft, Sydney. ∙ Processes to date that have involved developing a research consortium with universities and Wirasoft. The participatory process supports the design of a Participatory Action Research Programme to be implemented in three stages across Depok (a highly urbanized area with a diverse population), Jatinangor (an area that is becoming increasingly suburban) and Cianjur (a food production area). The fourfold aim of this PAR research in public policy and administration is to: ∙ Develop and pilot processes for public education and engagement to address the rights and responsibilities of ecological citizens through participatory public education. The approach to the research will be to pilot the engagement software and to test the understanding that people have of social, economic and environmental challenges before and after using the software. ∙ Work with people to find local solutions and to explore what works, why and how and what does not work why and how. It will do so by exploring the following hypothesis: The greater the level of public participation (a) the greater the understanding of UN Development Goals, (b) the greater the personal application of the goals. ∙ Address the low carbon challenge by finding ways to regenerate the way we live in cities and to be mindful that the United Nations Sustainability Development Goals do not go far enough to prevent food, energy and water insecurity in unliveable environments. It addresses and considers food, energy and water security by enabling people to engage in local governance at the local level. ∙ Extend the previously funded research by the Local Government Association, entitled: “Decision Making Software to address mitigation and adaptation to climate change” (Ethics Protocol 5262) (The research was conducted from 2010 and completed in 2012 and the results were published in 2014 in the form of two Springer volumes. The results of the de-identified data have been published by Systems Research and Behavioural Science and by Springer. McIntyre-Mills, J. 2012a “Anthropocentricism and wellbeing: a way out of the lobster pot?” Syst. Research and Behavioural Science. Published online in Wiley Online Library. (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI:10.1002/sres.2131 (A ranking ABDC Australian Business Deans Council Journal Quality List). McIntyre-Mills, J and de Vries, D. 2012b. “Transformation from Wall Street to Well-being” Syst. Research and Behavioural Science First published online: 10 OCT 2012 DOI: 10.1002/sres.2133 (A ranking ABDC Australian Business Deans Council Journal Quality List). McIntyre-Mills, J. with De Vries and Binchai, N. 2014, “From Wall Street to Wellbeing” Springer, New York, 253 pp. ISBN 978-1-4899-7465-5). McIntyre-Mills, J. 2014b, “Systemic Ethics and non-anthropocentric stewardship” Springer, New York, 270 pp.). Thus the research will: ∙ Deepen our understanding of how people perceive local climate challenges and experiences. ∙ Explore the social influences habits and a range of behaviours that potentially shape consumption. ∙ Test the kinds of face-to-face and digital public engagement that could encourage people to explore ways to live simply and well. The research is low risk and the data will be collected by Assoc. Prof Janet McIntyre and co-researchers. The research will be conducted through focus groups, interviews hosted via the participating organizations and a web-based survey.

Keywords

  • Low carbon living
  • Footprint
  • Participatory design
  • Pathways
  • Wellbeing
  • Resources
  • Needs
  • Have
  • Turning points

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Notes

  1. 1.

    https://www.google.com.au/search?q=population+of+india%3F&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&hl=en&client=safari.

  2. 2.

    http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/08/women-spend-40-billion-hours-collecting-water/.

  3. 3.

    The desire of the rich to consume and the desire of the majority of the poor to leave the ghetto are expressed through emulating the rich. Socio-demographic research shows that debt and bankruptcy in developed nations—such as the USA and nations within the EU—are driven by advertising, easy credit and the desire to ‘keep up appearances’ by emulating the standards of the very rich (Frank, 2007, Wilkinson and Pickett, 2009). Making and invoking treaties and conventions that control commodification need to be a priority and need to be ongoing if justice is to be maintained. The approach could be buttressed through federations supported by, for example, the Lisbon Treaty (Horvath and Odor, 2010) which requires that social, economic and environmental legal considerations be met. Unfortunately, the structural and process mechanisms of the EU are not able to manage the distribution of power or funding (Rhodes, 1997). Clearly if the EU is to survive it needs to be supported by a means to balance individual and national interests with the collective good of the union. More and more members of the union are disenchanted for a number of reasons.

  4. 4.

    As Fiona Stanley said in her 11th Annual Hawke Oration in 2008: the challenges faced by Aboriginal Australians in terms of housing, health and social inclusion are issues that will be felt by many as climate change deepens the impact on social, economic and environmental challenges (McIntyre-Mills, 2011, 2014b). All life will be threatened.

  5. 5.

    46th Annual Meeting of the International Society for the System Sciences at Shanghai, People's Republic of China, August 2-6, 2002.

  6. 6.

    This book is based on the idea that democracy and governance needs to be reframed through better representation, accounting and accountability. This involves valuing the human and natural resources and relationships appropriately and appreciating the opportunity costs that are created by not doing the right thing and not monitoring the distribution of resources fairly and equitably. This requires a transformation in our thinking, decision-making and practice to ensure a liveable future for this generation and the next. Accelerated climate change will adversely affect wellbeing and sustainability (Flannery, 2005; Singer‚ 2002; Stiglitz et al. 2010) if we continue to consume at current rates (Davies and World Institute 2008). The impact has been underestimated (Lovelock 2009; Rockström et al. 2009) by the Intergovernmental Panel (IPPC) on Climate Change (2001) and the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (2007). The IPPC concluded that the goal of reducing the carbon footprint should be 387 parts per million of carbon, but Rockström et al. (2009) have argued that it should be lower at 350 parts per million.

  7. 7.

    See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPUmN88htCo and Earth democracy http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=Bq0lrbznsjc. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/may/31/the-heat-and-the-death-toll-are-rising-in-india-is-this-a-glimpse-of-earths-future.

  8. 8.

    Silencing and distancing of those who seek asylum raises many long term issues for social justice. The implications of silencing and ignoring ‘the other’ at the organizational level or interorganizational national and post national level can be gleaned by considering the implications at an interpersonal level. A precedent for such an approach is the work on the ‘Authoritarian Personality’ by Theodor Adorno written as a reflection on the Second World War. The notion that fascism is associated with a particular kind of personality associated with particular types of interpersonal relations already exists. Perhaps another step can be taken when considering the implications of silencing and ignoring non-citizens? I make this link in my forthcoming book towards a: “Planetary passport” (McIntyre-Mills 2017 forthcoming). The implications of silencing and distancing at the international relations level can be gleaned by considering the implications at an interpersonal level of distancing and the prevention of bonding. The Image of the Mother's Eye: Autism and Early Narcissistic Injury. The studies of autism also show that bonding between mothers and children can be enhanced through gazing deeply into a child’s eyes, Maxson J. McDowell, Ph.D., http://cogprints.org/2593/1/eye22fixed_by_cogprints.html.

  9. 9.

    Note: The pyramid provided is not corresponding to data given above because the age groups have different number of years.

  10. 10.

    http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/30/daytime-cooking-ban-in-india-as-heatwave-claims-300-lives.

  11. 11.

    http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/may/31/the-heat-and-the-death-toll-are-rising-in-india-is-this-a-glimpse-of-earths-future.

  12. 12.

    It is based on questioning boundaries of inclusion and exclusion, it examines the so-called ‘enemies within’ (religion, mortality, politics and aesthetics) and it considers the consequences of our choices.

  13. 13.

    These public interests include environmental considerations. Today the decision to for example to use energy selfishly and excessively has implications for other communities who may be more affected by extreme weather events as a result of our choices. For example, we may choose to drive an SUV when it is unnecessary or when it is possible to walk to meet our friends. We may use water excessively for forms of agriculture that will have a downstream risk to other communities needs to be governed by laws that protect the common good. Furthermore, complex decisions need to be informed by those who will be affected by the decisions Ashby’s rule of Requisite Variety (1956) to establish ways to enhance representation, accountability and engagement.

  14. 14.

    Source: Nussbaum, M. C., 2011. Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach. London: Harvard University Press.

    1. 1.

      Life. Being able to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely, or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living.

    2. 2.

      Bodily health. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; to be adequately nourished; to have adequate shelter.

    3. 3.

      Bodily integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.

    4. 4.

      Senses, imagination and thought. Being able to use the senses, to imagine, think and reason—and to do these things in a ‘truly human’ way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training. Being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing works and events of one’s own choice, religious, literary, musical and so forth. Being able to use one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression with respect to both political and artistic speech, and freedom of religious exercise. Being able to have pleasurable experiences, and to avoid non-beneficial pain.

    5. 5.

      Emotions. Being able to have attachments to things and people outside ourselves; to love those who love and care for us, to grieve at their absence; in general, to love to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude and justified anger. Not having one’s emotional development blighted by fear and anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association that can be shown to be crucial in their development).

    6. 6.

      Practical reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience and religious observance).

    7. 7.

      Affiliation.

      1. (A)

        Being able to live with and toward others, to recognize and show concern for other human beings, to engage in various forms of social interaction; to be able to imagine the situation of another. (Protecting this capability means protecting institutions that constitute and nourish such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedom of assembly and political speech.)

      2. (B)

        Having the social bases of self-respect and non-humiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. This entails provisions of non-discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual orientation, religion, caste, ethnicity and national origin.

    8. 8.

      Other species. Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants and the world of nature.

    9. 9.

      Play. Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities.

    10. 10.

      Control over one’s environment.

      1. (A)

        Political. Being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life; having the right of political participation, protection of free speech and association.

      2. (B)

        Material. Being able to hold property (both land and movable goods); having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; having freedom from unwanted search and seizure. In work, being able to work as a human being, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers.

  15. 15.

    Currently, my practical concern that there are more refugees and asylum seekers now than ever before and the current form of democracy and governance does not work. I strive to focus on the need to work with many forms of knowledge and across conceptual and spatial boundaries to address the big issues of the day, namely peace, gender mainstreaming and social, economic and environmental security within increasingly densely populated cities that need to respond to increasing poverty and climate change. This has implications for the quality of life from a human, non-anthropocentric and environmental perspective. We need education that enables co-determination of our future and that protects both human and environmental wellbeing. Her notion of the ‘banality of evil’ is particularly relevant as we need to consider the broad context and the structures that lead people to make unethical choices at a personal, interpersonal and planetary level. The banality of evil evident in media coverage spanning values, freedom of movement and violence expressed in the language of religion or politics.

  16. 16.

    Opportunities exist to include creating a better balance between rural and urban areas and greening cities (Dryzek, 1999, 2000, 2010) through the creation of urban agriculture in open spaces, on top of, attached to and within buildings.

  17. 17.

    Anthropocentrism and humanism need to move towards respect for Biodiversity (Nagoya Summit in Japan in 2010).The purpose of this research paper is not to rehearse the same arguments about rights and responsibilities – these are taken as a given. This paper is also not about ‘what is the case’ or ‘what ought to be the case’. Instead it takes it as given that social injustice and inequality exists and that the disappearance of biodiversity will make a difference to the ecosystemic web of life and to human wellbeing. The loss of insects, such as bees along with greed and hubris will impact on food security—just as it will jeopardize seed security. Instead this research is located in the domain of how to develop a new architecture in response to Dahl’s (1967) pessimism about extending the scale of democracy and governance.

  18. 18.

    According to the Word Food Programme (2016), malnutrition is a problem in Indonesia as many become under nourished as a result of food insecurity or obese as a result of changing diets in increasingly urbanized contexts. The cost to the economy is in the region of 5 billion annually.

  19. 19.

    McIntyre will be assisted by Novieta Hardeani Sari, Lecturer and Research Fellow in Universitas Nasional Jakarta, Indonesia and Dr Ida Widiansingh (Flinders PhD) to facilitate the research in Indonesia across the three case study areas detailed below. Universitas Nasional students will test the prototype first then the first case study will commence. Participants will be invited by administrators at the following organizations: Universitas Nasional, Padjadjaran, the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Religion and through the West Java Provincial Council.

  20. 20.

    Notes for the Public/NGO/Private sector. Please watch the following video by Robert Costanza as a precursor for our discussions on.

  21. 21.

    Vananda Shiva Growth = Poverty Published on Nov 10, 2013http://sydneyoperahouse.com/ideas Ideas at the House: http://www.youtube.com/ideasatthehousehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7M3WJQbnHKc.

  22. 22.

    Anthropocene- magnitude of human footprint – implications for new forms of governance.https://www.linkedin.com/grp/post/6973569-6044442047962697729 http://www.ageoftransition.org/#!transformation/c6fi.

  23. 23.

    This information was provided to local government to help them to plan and deliver services to residents. The administrators are able to access summarized data in spreadsheets. Axial themes according to Max Neef (1991) resonate with the axial themes identified in McIntyre-Mills et al. (2008, 2011, 2014).

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McIntyre-Mills, J., Wirawan, R., Shergi Laksmono, B., Widianingsih, I., Hardeani Sari, N. (2018). Pathways to Wellbeing—Low Carbon Challenge to Live Virtuously and Well: Participatory Design and Education on Mitigation, Adaptation, Governance and Accountability. In: McIntyre-Mills, J., Romm, N., Corcoran-Nantes, Y. (eds) Balancing Individualism and Collectivism. Contemporary Systems Thinking. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58014-2_3

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