Leaning-Based 360° Interfaces: Investigating Virtual Reality Navigation Interfaces with Leaning-Based-Translation and Full-Rotation

  • Abraham M. HashemianEmail author
  • Bernhard E. Riecke
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10280)


Despite recent advances in high quality Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs), designing locomotion interfaces for Virtual Reality (VR) is still challenging, and might contribute to unwanted side effects such as disorientation and motion sickness. To address these issues, we investigated the potentials of leaning-based 360° locomotion interfaces, which provide full-rotational motion cues (unlimited 360° rotations) for rotation, and leaning-based translational motion cues for forward/backward and sideways translation.

In this experiment we compared joystick with three locomotion interfaces: Real-Rotation (rotation control by an office swivel chair and forward/backward and sideways translations by joystick); Swivel-Chair (rotation control by the swivel chair and forward/backward and sideways control by leaning forward/backward and sideways on the chair respectively); NaviChair (rotation control by a sit/stand stool and forward/backward and sideway control by weight shifting and leaning in the same direction, which is sensed by a Nintendo’s Wii balance board pressure sensors the stool is mounted on).

We asked participants to follow an avatar in an unpredictable curvilinear path in a gamified experiment to evaluate interfaces in terms of different usability aspects, including accuracy, motion sickness, sensation of self-motion, presence, immersion, ease of use, ease of learning, engagement, enjoyment, overall preference, etc. Results did not show any significant advantages of our suggested interfaces over the joystick. But in a sense this is promising because in many aspects, the usability of the proposed interfaces was similar to the well-trained joystick. Moreover, our interfaces had slightly lower motion sickness ratings, and higher sensation of self-motion and spatial presence ratings than the joystick. However, they showed controllability issues, which resulted in significantly lower navigation accuracy (i.e., distance errors) and reduced control precision ratings, which made them less easy to use and comfortable than joystick.

We also discuss the participants’ qualitative feedbacks about our interfaces, which shows their strengths and weaknesses, and guide the design of more embodied future VR locomotion interfaces.


Virtual reality Locomotion interface Leaning-based interface Motion sickness Disorientation 


  1. 1.
    Beckhaus, S., Blom, K.J., Haringer, M.: Intuitive, hands-free travel interfaces for virtual environments. In: 2005 New Directions in 3D User Interfaces Workshop of IEEE VR, pp. 57–60 (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berger, D.R., Schulte-Pelkum, J., Bülthoff, H.H.: Simulating believable forward accelerations on a stewart motion platform. ACM Trans. Appl. Percept. 7(1), 5:1–5:27 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bowman, D.A., Koller, D., Hodges, L.F.: A methodology for the evaluation of travel techniques for immersive virtual environments. Virtual Reality 3(2), 120–131 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chance, S.S., Gaunet, F., Beall, A.C., Loomis, J.M.: Locomotion mode affects the updating of objects encountered during travel: The contribution of vestibular and proprioceptive inputs to path integration. Presence 7(2), 168–178 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chester, M.R., Rys, M.J., Konz, S.A.: Leg swelling, comfort and fatigue when sitting, standing, and sit/standing. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 29(5), 289–296 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fairchild, K.M., Lee, B.H., Loo, J., Ng, H., Serra, L.: The heaven and earth virtual reality: Designing applications for novice users. In: Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, pp. 47–53, September 1993Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Freiberg, J.: Experience Before Construction: Immersive Virtual Reality Design Tools for Architectural Practice (MSc Thesis). Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC, Canada (2015)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grechkin, T.Y., Riecke, B.E.: Re-evaluating benefits of body-based rotational cues for maintaining orientation in virtual environments: Men benefit from real rotations, women don’t. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception, New York, 99–102 (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Groen, E.L., Bles, W.: How to use body tilt for the simulation of linear self motion. J. Vestib. Res.: Equilib. Orientation 14(5), 375–385 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hale, K.S., Stanney, K.M., Keshavarz, B., Hecht, H., Lawson, B.D.: Visually induced motion sickness: Causes, characteristics, and countermeasures. In: Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications, pp. 647–698. CRC Press (2014). Second EditionGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harris, A., Nguyen, K., Wilson, P.T., Jackoski, M., Williams, B.: Human joystick: Wii-leaning to translate in large virtual environments. In: Proceedings of the 13th ACM SIGGRAPH International Conference on Virtual-Reality Continuum and its Applications in Industry, New York, pp. 231–234 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kitson, A., Hashemian, A.M., Stepanova, K., Riecke, B.E.: Comparing Leaning-Based Motion Cueing Interfaces for Virtual Reality Locomotion (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kitson, A., Riecke, B.E., Hashemian, A.M., Neustaedter, C.: NaviChair: Evaluating an embodied interface using a pointing task to navigate virtual reality. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction, New York, pp. 123–126 (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kruijff, E., Marquardt, A., Trepkowski, C., Lindeman, R.W., Hinkenjann, A., Maiero, J., Riecke, B.E.: On Your Feet! Enhancing Self-Motion Perception in Leaning-Based Interfaces through Multisensory Stimuli (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Langbehn, E., Eichler, T., Ghose, S., von Luck, K., Bruder, G., Steinicke, F.: Evaluation of an omnidirectional walking-in-place user interface with virtual locomotion speed scaled by forward leaning angle. In: Proceedings of the GI Workshop on Virtual and Augmented Reality (GI VR/AR), pp. 149–160 (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    LaViola Jr., J.J., Feliz, D.A., Keefe, D.F., Zeleznik, R.C.: Hands-free multi-scale navigation in virtual environments. In: Proceedings of the 2001 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, New York, pp. 9–15 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lawson, B.D.: Motion sickness symptomatology and origins. In: Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications, pp. 531–599 (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marchal, M., Pettré, J., Lécuyer, A.: Joyman: A human-scale joystick for navigating in virtual worlds. In: 2011 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), pp. 19–26, March 2011Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Merhi, O., Faugloire, E., Flanagan, M., Stoffregen, T.A.: Motion sickness, console video games, and head-mounted displays. Hum. Factors: J. Hum. Factors Ergon. Soc. 49(5), 920–934 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nguyen-Vo, T., Riecke, B.E., Stuerzlinger, W.: Moving in a Box: Improving Spatial Orientation in Virtual Reality using Simulated Reference Frames (2017)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Riccio, G.E., Stoffregen, T.A.: An ecological theory of motion sickness and postural instability. Ecol. Psychol. 3(3), 195–240 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Riecke, B.E.: Simple user-generated motion cueing can enhance self-motion perception (vection) in virtual reality. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, New York, pp. 104–107 (2006)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Riecke, B.E., Bodenheimer, B., McNamara, T.P., Williams, B., Peng, P., Feuereissen, D.: Do we need to walk for effective virtual reality navigation? Physical rotations alone may suffice. In: Hölscher, C., Shipley, T.F., Olivetti Belardinelli, M., Bateman, J.A., Newcombe, N.S. (eds.) Spatial Cognition 2010. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 6222, pp. 234–247. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14749-4_21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Riecke, B.E., Feuereissen, D.: To move or not to move: can active control and user-driven motion cueing enhance self-motion perception (“Vection”) in virtual reality? In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception, New York, pp. 17–24 (2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Riecke, B.E., Sigurdarson, S., Milne, A.P.: Moving through virtual reality without moving? Cogn. Process. 13(1), 293–297 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Riecke, B.E., Trepkowski, C., Kitson, A., Kruijff, E.: Human Joystick: Enhancing Self-Motion Perception (Linear Vection) by using Upper Body Leaning for Gaming and Virtual Reality (2017)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ruddle, R.A.: The effect of translational and rotational body-based information on navigation. In: Steinicke, F., Visell, Y., Campos, J., Lécuyer, A. (eds.) Human Walking in Virtual Environments, pp. 99–112. Springer, New York (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ruddle, R.A., Lessels, S.: For efficient navigational search, humans require full physical movement, but not a rich visual scene. Psychol. Sci. 17(6), 460–465 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ruddle, R.A., Lessels, S.: The benefits of using a walking interface to navigate virtual environments. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 16(1), 5:1–5:18 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sigurdarson, S., Milne, A.P., Feuereissen, D., Riecke, B.E.: Can physical motions prevent disorientation in naturalistic VR? In: 2012 IEEE Virtual Reality Workshops (VRW), pp. 31–34, March 2012Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang, J., Lindeman, R.W.: Silver Surfer: A system to compare isometric and elastic board interfaces for locomotion in VR. In: 2011 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), pp. 121–122, March 2011Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williams, B., Narasimham, G., McNamara, T.P., Carr, T.H., Rieser, J.J., Bodenheimer, B.: Updating orientation in large virtual environments using scaled translational gain. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, New York, pp. 21–28 (2006)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zielasko, D., Horn, S., Freitag, S., Weyers, B., Kuhlen, T.W.: Evaluation of hands-free HMD-based navigation techniques for immersive data analysis. In: 2016 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), pp. 113–119, March 2016Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.iSpace Lab, School of Interactive Arts and TechnologySimon Fraser UniversityVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations