The History of Black Consciousness



Beginning with its roots in Bantu Education, this chapter sketches the rise and fall of Black Consciousness. Penfold summarises the diverse and complex influences behind this struggle ideology that was led by Steve Biko. Importantly, Penfold suggests that Black Consciousness must be fundamentally understood as a cultural movement. He also questions the suitability of using simplified racial binaries when discussing Black Consciousness ideology. The chapter ends with a discussion of the 1976 Soweto Uprisings. It speculates as to the different ways Black Consciousness remained prominent in South Africa’s political and literary psyche after its official banning.


Black Consciousness Bantu Education Steve Biko Soweto Uprising Fanon 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa

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