Skip to main content

Submarine Fans and Their Channels, Levees, and Lobes

Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)

Abstract

Submarine fans are complex morphological features that develop on the continental slope, rise and abyssal plain, normally at the mouths of submarine canyons. They are constructed principally from the deposits of sediment gravity flows (mainly turbidity currents and debris flows) as terrigenous and shallow marine sediment is redistributed into deeper water. In this chapter we focus on the most important building blocks of submarine fans: leveed submarine channels and the submarine lobes they feed. Mass transport deposits are also important components of many submarine fans; they are described in the Chapter on “Submarine Canyons and Gullies”. Submarine channels are the most noticeable geomorphic features on submarine fans, linking net erosional elements like canyons and gullies to net depositional elements like submarine lobes. They develop through both erosional and depositional processes, and have straight to highly sinuous planform geometries. Where they are flanked by aggradational levees or are entrenched into the seabed, they provide stable pathways through which sediment is transported and partitioned into different fan settings. Coarse-grained sediment commonly accumulates on the floors or at the mouths of submarine channels; finer-grained sediment preferentially accumulates on channel banks and on adjacent aggradational levees. In this chapter we describe the wide range of morphological features recognised on the surfaces of submarine fans, and the physical processes that shape the seabed in areas where submarine channels, levees, and lobes develop.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

References

  • Abad JD, Sequeiros OE, Spinewine B et al (2011) Secondary current of saline underflow in a highly meandering channel: experiments and theory. J Sediment Res 81:787–813

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Abreu V, Sullivan M, Mohrig D et al (2003) Lateral accretion packages (LAPs): an important reservoir element in deep water sinuous channels. Mar Pet Geol 20:631–648

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Adeogba AA, McHargue TR, Graham SA (2005) Transient fan architecture and depositional controls from near-surface 3-D seismic data, Niger Delta continental slope. AAPG Bull 89:627–643

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Babonneau N, Savoye B, Cremer M et al (2002) Morphology and architecture of the present canyon and channel system of the Zaire deep-sea fan. Mar Pet Geol 19:445–467

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Babonneau N, Savoye B, Cremer M et al (2004) Multiple terraces within the deep incised Zaire Valley (ZaiAngo Project): are they confined levees? Geological Society London Special Publications, vol 222, pp 91–114

    Google Scholar 

  • Babonneau N, Cattaneo A, Savoye B et al (2012) The Kramis deep-sea fan off western Algeria: role of sediment waves in turbiditic levee growth. In: Prather B, Deptuck M, Mohrig B et al (eds) Application of the principles of seismic geomorphology to continental slope and base-of-slope systems: case studies from seafloor and near-seafloor analogues. SEPM Special Publication, vol 99, pp 293–308

    Google Scholar 

  • Biscara L, Mulder T, Hanquiez V et al (2013) Morphological evolution of Cap Lopez Canyon (Gabon): illustration of lateral migration processes of a submarine canyon. Mar Geol 340:49–56

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bouma AH, Coleman JM, DSDP Leg 96 Shipboard Scientists (1985a) Mississippi fan: Leg 96 program and principal results. In: Bouma AH, Normark WR, Barnes NE (eds) Submarine fans and related turbidite systems. Springer, New York, pp 247–252

    Google Scholar 

  • Bouma AH, Barnes NE, Normark WR (eds) (1985b) Submarine fans and related turbidite sequences. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyd R, Ruming K, Goodwin I et al (2008) Highstand transport of coastal sand to the deep ocean: a case study from Fraser Island, southeast Australia. Geology 36:15–18

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brothers DS, ten Brink US, Andrews BD et al (2013) Geomorphic characterization of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin. Mar Geol 338:46–63

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cartwright JA, Huuse M (2005) 3D seismic technology: the geological “Hubble”. Basin Res 17:1–20

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clark JD, Pickering KT (1996) Architectural elements and growth patterns of submarine channels: application to hydrocarbon exploration. AAPG Bull 80:194–221

    Google Scholar 

  • Clark IR, Cartwright JA (2009) Interactions between submarine channel systems and deformation in deepwater fold belts: examples from the Levant Basin, Eastern Mediterranean sea. Mar Pet Geol 26:1465–1482

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clark JD, Kenyon NH, Pickering K (1992) Quantitative analysis of the geometry of submarine channels: implications for the classification of submarine fans. Geology 20:633–636

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Clift P, Henstock T (2015) Kongsberg EM302 processed bathymetry data, Indus Canyon and shelf, Pelagia cruise PE300 (year 2008–2009, investigators Peter Clift and Tim Henstock). Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA)

    Google Scholar 

  • Conway KW, Barrie JV, Picard K et al (2012) Submarine channel evolution: active channels in fjords, British Columbia, Canada. Geo-Mar Lett 32(4):301–312

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper C, Wood J, Andrieux O (2013) Turbidity current measurements in the Congo canyon. In: Offshore technology conference, OTC 23992

    Google Scholar 

  • Corney R, Peakall J, Parsons DR et al (2008) The orientation of helical flow in curved channels. Sedimentology 53:249–257

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Covault JA, Romans BW (2009) Growth patterns of deep-sea fans revisited: Turbidite-system morphology in confined basins, examples from the California Borderland. Mar Geol 265:51–66

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Covault JA, Normark WR, Romans BW et al (2007) Highstand fans in the California Borderland: the overlooked deep-water depositional systems. Geology 35:783–786

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Covault JA, Paull CK, Kostic S et al (2014) Submarine channel initiation, filling and maintenance from sea-floor geomorphology and morphodynamic modelling of cyclic steps. Sedimentology 61:1031–1054

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Damuth JE, Kowsmann RO, Flood RD et al (1983) Age relationships of distributary channels on Amazon deep-sea fan: implications for fan growth pattern. Geology 11:470–473

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Davies RJ, Posamentier HW, Wood LJ et al (2007) Seismic geomorphology: applications to hydrocarbon exploration and production. Geological Society of London Special Publication, vol 277, 274 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Decker J, Teas PA, Schneider RD et al (2004) Modern deep sea sedimentation in the Makassar Strait: insights from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, sub-bottom profiles, and USBL-navigated cores. In: IPA-AAPG deepwater and frontier symposium, pp 377–387

    Google Scholar 

  • Deptuck ME (2003) Post-rift geology of the Jeanne d’Arc Basin, with a focus on early Paleogene submarine fans and insights from modern deep-water systems. Dissertation, Dalhousie University, Canada

    Google Scholar 

  • Deptuck ME, Steffens GS, Barton M et al (2003) Architecture and evolution of upper fan channel-belts on the Niger Delta slope and in the Arabian Sea. Mar Pet Geol 20:649–676

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deptuck ME, Sylvester Z, Pirmez C et al (2007) Migration-aggradation history and 3D seismic geomorphology of submarine channels in the Pleistocene Benin-major Canyon, western Niger Delta slope. Mar Pet Geol 24:406–433

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deptuck ME, Piper DJW, Savoye B et al (2008) Dimensions and architecture of late Pleistocene submarine fan lobes off the northern margin of east Corsica. Sedimentology 55:869–898

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deptuck ME, Sylvester Z, O’Byrne C (2012) Pleistocene seascape evolution above a ‘simple’ stepped slope, western Niger Delta. In: Prather B, Deptuck M, Mohrig B et al (eds) Application of the principles of seismic geomorphology to continental slope and base-of-slope systems: case studies from seafloor and near-seafloor analogues. SEPM Special Publication, vol 99, pp 199–222

    Google Scholar 

  • Emmel FJ, Curray JR (1985) Bengal Fan, Indian Ocean. In: Bouma AH, Barnes NE, Normark WR (eds) Submarine fans and related turbidite sequences. Springer, New York, pp 107–112

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fernandez RL, Cantelli A, Pirmez C et al (2014) Growth patterns of subaqueous depositional channel lobe systems developed over a basement with a downdip break in slope: laboratory experiments. J Sediment Res 84:168–182

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ferry JN, Mulder T, Parize O et al (2005) Concept of equilibrium profile in deep-water turbidite systems: effects of local physiographic changes on the nature of sedimentary processes and the geometry of deposits. In: Hodgson DM, Flint SS (eds) Submarine slope systems: processes and product. Geological Society London Special Publication, vol 244, pp 181–193

    Google Scholar 

  • Fildani A, Normark WR, Kostic S et al (2006) Channel formation by flow stripping: large-scale scour features along the Monterey East channel and their relation to sediment waves. Sedimentology 53(6):1265–1287

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fildani A, Hubbard SM, Covault JA et al (2013) Erosion at inception of deep-sea channels. Mar Pet Geol 41:48–61

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Foreman BZ, Lai SYJ, Komatsu Y et al (2015) Braiding of submarine channels controlled by aspect ratio similar to rivers. Nat Geosci 8:700–704

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gardner JV (2004) Cruise Report USNS Henson (T-AGS-63) U.S. Law of the Sea cruise to map the foot of the slope and 2500-m isobaths of the Northeast US Atlantic continental margin. http://ccom.unh.edu/theme/law-sea/reports. Accessed 20 Feb 2017

  • Gee M, Gawthorpe R (2006) Submarine channel controlled by salt tectonics: examples from 3D seismic data offshore Angola. Mar Pet Geol 23:443–458

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gee M, Gawthorpe R (2007) Early evolution of submarine channels offshore Angola revealed by three-dimensional seismic data. Geological Society London Special Publications, vol 277, pp 223–235

    Google Scholar 

  • Gervais A, Mulder T, Savoye B et al (2006) Sediment distribution and evolution of sedimentary processes in a small sandy turbidite system (Golo system, Mediterranean Sea): implications for various geometries based on core framework. Geo-Mar Lett 26:373–395

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hansen L, Janocko M, Kane I et al (2017) Submarine channel evolution, terrace development, and preservation of intra-channel thin-bedded turbidites: Mahin and Avon channels, offshore Nigeria. Mar Geol 383:146–167

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hay AE (1987) Turbidity currents and submarine channel formation in Rupert Inlet, British Columbia 2. The roles of continuous and surge-type flow. J Geophys Res 92:2882–2900

    Google Scholar 

  • Heezen BC, Ewing M (1952) Turbidity currents and submarine slumps, and the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake. Am J Sci 250:849–873

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heiniö P, Davies RJ (2007) Knickpoint migration in submarine channels in response to fold growth, western Niger Delta. Mar Pet Geol 24:434–449

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heiniö P, Davies RJ (2009) Trails of depression and sediment waves along submarine channel on the continental margin of Espirito Santo Basin, Brazil. GSA Bull 121:698–711

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hiscott RN, Hall RR, Pirmez C (1997) Turbidity-current overspill from the Amazon Channel: texture of the silt/sand load, paleoflow from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and implications for flow processes. In: Flood RD, Piper DJW, Klaus A et al (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, Scientific Results Leg 155, pp 53–78

    Google Scholar 

  • Hubbard SM, Romans BW, Graham SA (2008) Deep-water foreland basin deposits of the Cerro Toro formation, Magallanes basin, Chile: architectural elements of a sinuous basin axial channel belt. Sedimentology 55:1333–1359

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hughes-Clarke JE (2016) First wide-angle view of channelized turbidity currents links migrating cyclic steps to flow characteristics. Nat Commun 7:11896

    Google Scholar 

  • Imran J, Islam M, Huang H et al (2007) Helical flow couplets in submarine gravity underflows. Geology 35:659–662

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jégou I, Savoye B, Pirmez C et al (2008) Channel-mouth lobe complex of the recent Amazon Fan: the missing piece. Mar Geol 252:62–77

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jobe ZR, Sylvester Z, Parker AO et al (2015) Rapid adjustment of submarine channel architecture to changes in sediment supply. J Sediment Res 85:1–25

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jobe ZR, Howes NC, Auchter NC (2016) Comparing submarine and fluvial channel kinematics: implications for stratigraphic architecture. Geology 44:931–934

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kane EA, Hodgson DM (2011) Sedimentological criteria to differentiate submarine channel levee subenvironments: exhumed examples from the Rosario Fm. (Upper Cretaceous) of Baja California, Mexico, and the Fort Brown FM. (Permian), Karoo Basin, S. Africa. Mar Petrol Geol 28:807–823

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kenyon NH, Amir A, Cramp A (1995) Geometry of the younger sediment bodies of the Indus Fan. In: Pickering KT, Hiscott RN, Kenyon NH, et al (eds) Atlas of deep-water environments: architectural styles in turbidite systems, Chapman & Hall, London, pp 89–93

    Google Scholar 

  • Klaucke I, Hesse R, Ryan W (1998) Seismic stratigraphy of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean channel: growth pattern of a mid-ocean channel-levee complex. Mar Pet Geol 15:575–585

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kolla V (2007) A review of sinuous channel avulsion patterns in some major deep-sea fans and factors controlling them. Mar Pet Geol 24:450–469

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kolla V, Bandyopadhyay A, Gupta P et al (2012) Morphology and internal structure of a recent upper Bengal Fan-valley complex. In: Prather B, Deptuck M, Mohrig B et al (eds) Application of the principles of seismic geomorphology to continental slope and base-of-slope systems: case studies from seafloor and near-seafloor analogues. SEPM Special Publication, vol 99, pp 347–369

    Google Scholar 

  • Konsoer K, Zinger J, Parker G (2013) Bankfull hydraulic geometry of submarine channels created by turbidity currents: Relations between bankfull channel characteristics and formative flow discharge. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 118:216–228

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kostic S (2011) Modeling of submarine cyclic steps: controls on their formation, migration, and architecture. Geosphere 7:294–304

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kuenen PhH, Migliorini CI (1950) Turbidity currents as a cause of graded bedding. J Geol 58:91–127

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maier KL, Fildani A, McHargue TR et al (2012) Punctuated deep-water channel migration: high-resolution subsurface data from the Lucia Chica channel system, offshore California, U.S.A. J Sediment Res 82:1–8

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maier KL, Fildani A, Paull CK et al (2013) Deep-sea channel evolution and stratigraphic architecture from inception to abandonment from high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle surveys offshore central California. Sedimentology 60:935–960

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Manley PL, Pirmez C, Busch W et al (1997) Gran-size characterization of Amazon Fan deposits and comparison to seismic facies units. In: Flood RD, Piper DJW, Klaus A et al (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, Scientific Results Leg 155, pp 35–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayall M, Lonergan L, Bowman A (2010) The response of turbidite slope channels to growth-induced seabed topography. AAPG Bull 94:1011–1030

    Google Scholar 

  • Micallef A, Mountjoy JJ, Barnes PM et al (2014) Geomorphic response of submarine canyons to tectonic activity: insights from the cook strait canyon system, New Zealand. Geosphere 10:905–929

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mulder T, Syvitski JPM (1995) Turbidity currents generated at mouths of rivers during exceptional discharges to the world oceans. J Geol 103:285–299

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mulder T, Alexander J (2001) Abrupt change in slope causes variation in the deposit thickness of concentrated particle-driven density currents. Mar Geol 175:221–235

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mutti E (1985) Turbidite systems and their relations to depositional sequences. In: Zuffa GG (ed) Provenance of arenites, Reidel Publishing Company, pp 65–93

    Google Scholar 

  • Mutti E, Ricci Lucchi F (1972) Le torbiditi dell’ Appennino Settentrionale: introduzione all’analisi di facies. Memorie della Societa Geologica Italiana 11:161–199

    Google Scholar 

  • Mutti E, Normark WR (1991) An integrated approach to the study of turbidite systems. In: Weimer W, Link MH (eds) Seismic facies and sedimentary processes of modern and ancient submarine fans. Springer, New York, pp 75–106

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakajima T, Peakall J, McCaffrey WD et al (2009) Outer-bank bars: a new intra-channel architectural element within sinuous submarine slope channels. J Sediment Res 79:872–886

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nilsen TH, Shew RD, Steffens GS et al (eds) (2007) AAPG studies in geology 56—atlas of deep-water outcrops. Tulsa, Oklahoma, 504 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Normark WR (1970) Growth patterns of deep sea fans. AAPG Bull 54:2170–2195

    Google Scholar 

  • Normark WR (1978) Fan valleys, channels, and depositional lobes on modern submarine fans; characters for recognition of sandy turbidite environments. AAPG Bull 62:912–931

    Google Scholar 

  • Normark WR, Dickson FH (1976) Sublacustrine fan morphology in Lake Superior. AAPG Bull 60:1021–1036

    Google Scholar 

  • Normark WR, Piper DJW (1991) Depositional consequences of turbidity currents reflecting initiation processes and flow evolution. SEPM Special Publication, vol 46, pp 207–230

    Google Scholar 

  • Normark WR, Piper DJW, Posamentier H et al (2002) Variability in form and growth of sediment waves on turbidite channel levees. Mar Geol 192:23–58

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Normark WR, Paull CK, Caress DW et al (2009) Fine-scale relief related to Late Holocene channel shifting within the floor of the Upper Redondo Fan, offshore Southern California. Sedimentology 56:1690–1704

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Oluboyo AP, Gawthorpe RL, Bakke K et al (2014) Salt tectonic controls on deep-water turbidite depositional systems: Miocene, southwestern Lower Congo Basin, offshore Angola. Basin Res 26:597–620

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Parsons DR, Peakall J, Aksu A et al (2010) Gravity-driven flow in a submarine channel bend: direct field evidence of helical flow reversal. Geology 38:1063–1066

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peakall J, Sumner EJ (2015) Submarine channel flow processes and deposits: a process-product perspective. Geomorphology 244:95–120

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peakall J, McCaffrey B, Kneller B (2000) A process model for the evolution, morphology, and architecture of sinuous submarine channels. J Sediment Res 70:434–448

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Picot M, Droz L, Marsset T et al (2016) Controls on turbidite sedimentation: insights from a quantitative approach of submarine channel and lobe architecture (Late Quaternary Congo Fan). Mar Pet Geol 72:423–446

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Piper DJW, Normark WR (1983) Turbidite depositional patterns and flow characteristics, Navy Submarine fan, California Continental Borderlands. Sedimentology 30:681–694

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Piper DJW, Deptuck ME (1997) Fine-grained turbidites of the Amazon Fan: facies characterization and interpretation. In: Flood RD, Piper DJW, Klaus A et al (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, Scientific Results Leg 155, pp 79–108

    Google Scholar 

  • Piper DJW, Normark WR (2001) Sandy fans—from Amazon to Hueneme. AAPG Bull 85:1407–1438

    Google Scholar 

  • Piper DJW, Stow DAV, Normark WR (1985) Laurentian fan, Atlantic Ocean. In: Bouma AH, Barnes NE, Normark WR (eds) Submarine fans and related turbidite sequences. Springer, New York, pp 137–142

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Piper DJW, Pirmez C, Manley PL et al (1997) Mass-transport deposits of the Amazon Fan. In: Flood RD, Piper DJW, Klaus A et al (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, Scientific Results Leg 155, pp 109–146

    Google Scholar 

  • Piper DJW, Hiscott RN, Normark WR (1999) Outcrop-scale acoustic facies analysis and latest quaternary development of Hueneme and Dume submarine fans, offshore California. Sedimentology 46:47–78

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Piper DJW, Deptuck ME, Mosher DC et al (2012) Erosional and depositional features of glacial meltwater discharges on the eastern Canadian continental margin. In: Prather B, Deptuck M, Mohrig B et al (eds), Application of the principles of seismic geomorphology to continental slope and base-of-slope systems: case studies from seafloor and near-seafloor analogues. SEPM Special Publication, vol 99, pp 61–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Pirmez C, Imran J (2003) Reconstruction of turbidity currents in Amazon Channel. Mar Pet Geol 20:823–849

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pirmez C, Hiscott R, Kronen J (1997) Sandy turbidite successions at the base of channel-levee systems of the Amazon Fan revealed by FMS logs and cores: unraveling the facies architecture of large submarine fans. In: Flood RD, Piper DJW, Klaus A et al (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, Scientific Results Leg 155, pp 7–33

    Google Scholar 

  • Pirmez C, Beaubouef RT, Friedmann SJ et al (2000) Equilibrium profile and baselevel in submarine channels: examples from Late Pleistocene systems and implications for the architecture of deepwater reservoirs. In: GCSSEPM foundation 20th annual research conference, vol 20, pp 782–805

    Google Scholar 

  • Pirmez C, Prather BE, Mallarino G et al (2012) Chronostratigraphy of the Brazos-Trinity depositional system, western Gulf of Mexico: implications for deepwater depositional models. In: Prather B, Deptuck M, Mohrig B et al (eds) Application of the principles of seismic geomorphology to continental slope and base-of-slope systems: case studies from seafloor and near-seafloor analogues. SEPM Special Publication, vol 99, pp 107–139

    Google Scholar 

  • Popescu I, Lericolais G, Panin N et al (2001) Late Quaternary channel avulsions on the Danube deep-sea fan, Black Sea. Mar Geol 179:25–37

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Posamentier HW, Erskine RD, Mitchum RM (1991) Chapter 6—models for submarine-fan deposition within a sequence-stratigraphic framework. In: Weimer P, Link MH (eds) Seismic facies and sedimentary processes of modern and ancient submarine fans. Springer, New York, pp 127–136

    Google Scholar 

  • Prather BE, Booth JR, Steffens GS et al (1998) Classification, lithologic calibration and stratigraphic succession of seismic facies from intraslope basins, deep water Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. AAPG Bull 82:701–728

    Google Scholar 

  • Prather BE, Deptuck ME, Mohrig D et al (eds) (2012) Application of the principles of seismic geomorphology to continental slope and base-of-slope systems: case studies from seafloor and near-seafloor analogues. SEPM Special Publication, vol 99. Tulsa, Oklahoma

    Google Scholar 

  • Prelat A, Hodgson DM, Flint S (2009) Evolution, architecture and hierarchy of distributary deep-water deposits: a high-resolution outcrop investigation from the Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa. Sedimentology 56:2132–2154

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Prelat A, Covault JA, Hodgson DM et al (2010) Intrinsic controls on the range of volumes, morphologies, and dimensions of submarine lobes. Sed Geol 232:66–76

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reading HG, Richards M (1994) Turbidite systems in deep-water basin margins classified by grain size and feeder system. AAPG Bull 78:792–822

    Google Scholar 

  • Reimchen AP, Hubbard SM, Stright L et al (2016) Using sea-floor morphometrics to constrain stratigraphic models of sinuous submarine channel systems. Mar Pet Geol 77:92–115

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ricci Lucchi F (1985) Chapter 9: Crati fan. In: Bouma AH, Barnes NE, Normark WR (eds) Submarine fans and related turbidite sequences. Springer, New York, pp 59–64

    Google Scholar 

  • Savoye B, Piper DJW, Droz L (1993) Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the Var deep-sea fan off the French Riviera. Mar Pet Geol 10:550–571

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schwarz E, Arnott RWC (2007) Anatomy and evolution of a slope channel-complex set (Neoproterozoic Isaac Formation, Windermere Supergroup, southern Canadian Cordillera): implication for reservoir characterization. J Sediment Res 77:89–109

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shanmugam G, Moiola RJ (1988) Submarine fans: characteristics, models, classification and reservoir potential. Earth Sci Rev 24:383–428

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Skene KI (1998) Architecture of submarine channel levees. Dissertation, Dalhousie University, Canada

    Google Scholar 

  • Skene KI, Piper DJW, Hill PS (2002) Quantitative analysis of variations in depositional sequence thickness from submarine channel levees. Sedimentology 49:1411–1430

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sømme TO, Helland-Hansen W, Martinsen OJ et al (2009) Relationships between morphological and sedimentological parameters in source-to-sink systems: a basis for predicting semi-quantitative characteristics in subsurface systems. Basin Res 21:361–387

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Spinewine B, Sun T, Babonneau N et al (2011) Self-similar long profiles of aggrading submarine leveed channels: analytical solution and its application to the Amazon channel. J Geophys Res AGU 116:F03004

    Google Scholar 

  • Steffens GS, Biegert EK, Sumner S et al (2003) Quantitative bathymetric analyses of selected deepwater siliciclastic margins: receiving basin configurations for deepwater fan systems. Mar Pet Geol 20:547–561

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Straub KM, Mohrig D, McElroy B et al (2008) Interactions between turbidity currents and topography in aggrading sinuous submarine channels: a laboratory study. Geol Soc Am Bull 120:368–385

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sweeney EM, Gardner JV, Johnson JE et al (2012) Geological interpretation of a low-backscatter anomaly found on the New Jersey continental margin. Mar Geol 326–328:46–54

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sylvester Z, Pirmez C, Cantelli A (2011) A model of submarine channel-levee evolution based on channel trajectories: implications for stratigraphic architecture. Mar Pet Geol 28:716–727

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sylvester Z, Deptuck ME, Prather B et al (2012) Seismic stratigraphy of a shelf-edge delta and linked submarine channels in the NE Gulf of Mexico. In: Prather B, Deptuck M, Mohrig B et al (eds) Application of the principles of seismic geomorphology to continental slope and base-of-slope systems: case studies from seafloor and near-seafloor analogues. SEPM Special Publication, vol 99, pp 31–59

    Google Scholar 

  • Sylvester Z, Covault JA (2016) Development of cutoff-related knickpoints during early evolution of submarine channels. Geology 44:835–838

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Talling PJ, Allin J, Armitage DA et al (2015) Key future directions for research on turbidity currents and their deposits. J Sediment Res 85:153–169

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Walker RG (1978) Deep-water sandstone facies and ancient submarine fans: models for exploration for stratigraphic traps. AAPG Bull 62:932–966

    Google Scholar 

  • Weimer P, Link MH (eds) (1991) Seismic facies and sedimentary processes of modern and ancient submarine fans. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Wetzel A (1993) The transfer of river load to deep-sea fans: a quantitative approach. AAPG Bull 77:1679–1692

    Google Scholar 

  • Wynn RB, Kenyon NH, Masson DG (2002a) Characterization and recognition of deep-water channel-lobe transition zones. AAPG Bull 8:1441–1462

    Google Scholar 

  • Wynn RB, Piper DJW, Gee MJR (2002b) Generation and migration of coarse-grained sediment waves in turbidity current channels and channel-lobe transition zones. Mar Geol 192:59–78

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wynn RB, Cronin BR, Peakall J (2007) Sinuous deep-water channels: genesis, geometry and architecture. Mar Pet Geol 24:341–387

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Our sincere appreciation goes to Marie Picot and Nathalie Babonneau for providing the seafloor images from Zaire Fan and to Peter Clift for permission to use the Indus fan data. We thank Andrea Fildani for helpful comments.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mark E. Deptuck .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Deptuck, M.E., Sylvester, Z. (2018). Submarine Fans and Their Channels, Levees, and Lobes. In: Micallef, A., Krastel, S., Savini, A. (eds) Submarine Geomorphology. Springer Geology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57852-1_15

Download citation