Advertisement

Criminal Justice Policy and the Criminal Lifestyle

Chapter
Part of the Palgrave's Frontiers in Criminology Theory book series (FCRT)

Abstract

Considers policy issues that impinge on criminal lifestyle theory. The principal issues covered in this chapter include the war on drugs, juvenile waivers to adult court, restorative justice, gender issues and crime, mass incarceration, and prisoner re-entry. In each case the emphasis is on what criminal lifestyle theory has to offer each policy initiative in both conceptualizing and resolving the relevant issues. The specific principle or principles from nonlinear dynamical systems theory that inform each initiative are also discussed.

Keywords

Policy War on drugs Restorative justice Mass incarceration Re-entry 

References

  1. Altschuler, D. M., Armstrong, T. L., & MacKenzie, D. L. (1999, July). Reintegration, supervised release, and intensive aftercare. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  2. Bales, W. D., & Piquero, A. R. (2012). Assessing the impact of imprisonment on recidivism. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8, 71–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baum, D. (1996). Smoke and mirrors: The war on drugs and the politics of failure. New York: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  4. Belknap, J. (2007). The invisible woman: Gender, crime, and justice (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2008). The statistical association between drug misuse and crime: A meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13, 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beyer, M. (1997). Experts for juveniles at risk of adult sentences. In P. Puritz, A. Capozello, & W. Shang (Eds.), More than meets the eye: Rethinking assessment, competency and sentencing for a harsher era of juvenile justice (pp. 12–13). Washington, DC: American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center.Google Scholar
  7. Bishop, D. M., Frazier, C. E., Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Winner, L. (1996). The transfer of juveniles to criminal court: Does it make a difference? Crime & Delinquency, 42, 171–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame, and reintegration. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronstein, P. (2006). The family environment: Where gender role socialization begins. In J. Worell & C. D. Goodheart (Eds.), Handbook of girls’ and women’s psychological health: Gender and well-being across the lifespan (pp. 262–271). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Burrow, J. (2008). Reverse waiver and the effects of legal, statutory, and second legal factors on sentencing outcome for juvenile offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 54, 34–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Butzin, C. A., Martin, S. S., & Inciardi, J. A. (2002). Evaluating component effects of a prison-based treatment continuum. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 22, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chesney-Lind, M., & Palko, L. (2004). The female offender: Girls, women, and crime (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Cobbina, J. E., Owusu-Bempah, A., & Bender, K. (2016). Perceptions of race, crime, and policing among Ferguson protesters. Journal of Crime and Justice, 39, 210–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colorado Department of Public Safety. (2016, March). Marijuana legalization in Colorado: Early findings. Denver, CO: Author.Google Scholar
  15. DeLisi, M. (2002). Not just a boy’s club: An empirical assessment of female career criminals. Women & Criminal Justice, 13, 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Drug Policy Alliance. (2015, July). Marijuana legalization in Washington after 1 year of retail sales and 2.5 years of legal possession. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  17. Fagan, J. (1996). The comparative advantage of juvenile versus criminal court sanctions on recidivism among adolescent felony offenders. Law & Policy, 18, 77–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fagan, J. (2008). Juvenile crime and criminal justice: Resolving border disputes. Future of Children, 18, 81–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Farrington, D. P. (2003). Developmental and life-course criminology: Key theoretical and empirical issues. Criminology, 41, 221–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). (2016). Crime in the United States, 2015. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  21. Flowers, R. B. (2003). Male crime and deviance: Exploring its course, dynamics and nature. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  22. Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Holland, D. D. (2003). Changes in friendship relations over the life course: Implications for desistance from crime. Criminology, 41, 293–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Global Commission on Drug Policy. (2011, June). War on drugs: Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  24. Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1968). Delinquents and nondelinquents in perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Harlow, C. W. (1999). Prior abuse reported by inmates and probationers. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  26. Harrendorf, S., Heiskanen, M., & Malby, S. (Eds.). (2010). International statistics on crime and justice. Vienna, Austria: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Google Scholar
  27. Haynes, S. H., Cares, A. C., & Ruback, R. B. (2015). Reducing the harm of criminal victimization: The role of restitution. Violence and Victims, 30, 450–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Henrichson, C., & Delaney, R. (2012, January). The price of prisons: What incarceration costs taxpayers. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  29. Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. (1983). Age and the explanation of crime. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 552–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hochstetler, A., & DeLisi, M. (2005). Importation, deprivation, and varieties of serving time: An integrated-lifestyle-exposure model of prison offending. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33, 257–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Justice Policy Center Reentry Researchers. (2006, January). Understanding the Challenges of prisoner reentry: Research findings from the Urban Institute’s prisoner reentry portfolio. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Justice Policy Center.Google Scholar
  32. Karberg, J. C., & James, D. J. (2005). Substance dependence, abuse, and treatment of jail inmates, 2002. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report (NCJ 209588). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  33. Karp, D. R., & Drakulich, K. M. (2004). Minor crime in a quaint setting: Practices, outcomes, and limits of Vermont reparative probation boards. Criminology & Public Policy, 3, 655–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lambie, I., & Randell, I. (2013). The impact of incarceration on juvenile offenders. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 448–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Landenberger, N. A., & Lipsey, M. W. (2005). The positive effects of cognitive-behavioral programs for offenders: A meta-analysis of factors associated with effective treatment. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 451–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lauritsen, J. L., Heimer, K., & Lynch, J. P. (2009). Trends in the gender gap in violent offending: New evidence from the National Crime Victimization Survey. Criminology, 47, 361–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. LeBlanc, M., & Fréchette, M. (1989). Male criminal activity from childhood through youth: Multilevel and developmental perspectives. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leonov, G. A., & Kuznetsov, N. V. (2013). Hidden attractors in dynamical systems. From hidden oscillations in Hilbert-Kolmogorov, Aizerman, and Kalman problems to hidden chaotic attractor in Chua circuits. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 23(1330002).Google Scholar
  39. Lloyd, C. D., Hanby, L. J., & Serin, R. C. (2014). Rehabilitation group co-participants’ risk levels are associated with offenders’ treatment performance, treatment change, and recidivism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 298–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Petechuk, D. (2013, July). From juvenile delinquency to young adult offending. Final Report, NCJ 242931, http://nij.ncjrs.gov/publications.
  41. Lynch, J. P., & Sabol, W. J. (2004). Assessing the effects of mass incarceration on informal social control in communities. Criminology & Public Policy, 3, 267–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Males, M.A. (2008). Myths and facts about “direct file,” minorities, and adult-court sentencing. Available online: www.cjcj.org/post/juvenile/justice/myths/and/facts/about/direct/file/minorities/and/adult/court/sentencing/0.
  43. Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and build their lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maruna, S., & LeBel, T. P. (2003). Welcome home? Examining the “reentry court” concept from a strengths-based perspective. Western Criminology Review, 4, 91–107.Google Scholar
  45. Maruna, S., LeBel, T. P., Mitchell, N., & Naples, M. (2004). Pygmalion in the reintegration process: Desistance from crime through the looking glass. Psychology, Crime, & Law, 10, 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mathiesen, T. (1998). Selective incapacitation revisited. Law and Human Behavior, 22, 455–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mulvey, E. P., & Schubert, C. A. (2012, December). Transfer of juveniles to adult court: Effect of a broad policy in one court. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  48. Mumola, C. J., & Karberg, J. C. (2006). Drug use and dependence, state and federal prisoners, 2004. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report (NCJ 213530). U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  49. Musto, D. F. (2008). Drugs in America: A documentary history. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  50. Myers, D. (2003). The recidivism of violent youths in juvenile and adult court: A consideration of selection bias. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 1, 79–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nadelmann, E. A. (1991). The case for legalization. In J. A. Inciardi (Ed.), The drug legalization debate (Vol. 7, pp. 17–44). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Olson, D. E., Lurigio, A. J., & Alberden, M. (2003). Men are from Mars, women are from Venus, but what role does gender play in probation recidivism? Justice Research and Policy, 5, 33–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Palmer, E. J., Jinks, M., & Hatcher, R. M. (2010). Substance use, mental health, and relationships: A comparison of male and female offenders serving community sentences. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 33, 89–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Petersilia, J. (2004). What works in prisoner reentry? Reviewing and questioning the evidence. Federal Probation, 68(2), 4–8.Google Scholar
  55. Pridemore, W. A. (2001). Using newly available homicide data to debunk two myths about violence in an international context. Homicide Studies, 5, 267–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rose, D., & Clear, T. (2002). Incarceration, reentry and social capital: Social networks in the balance. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  57. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Sherman, L. W., Strang, H., Mayo-Wilson, E., Woods, D. J., & Ariel, B. (2015). Are restorative justice conferences effective in reducing repeat offending? Findings from a Campbell systematic review. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Steffensmeier, D., & Allan, E. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 459–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Thornton, M. (1991). Alcohol prohibition was a failure. Cato Institute Policy Analysis 157. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.Google Scholar
  61. Tonry, M. (1990). Stated and latent functions of ISP. Crime & Delinquency, 36, 174–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Topolinski, S., & Reber, R. (2010). Gaining insight into the “aha” experience. Psychological Science, 19, 402–405.Google Scholar
  63. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2011). World drug report 2011. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  64. Walters, G. D. (2003). Changes in criminal thinking and identity in novice and experienced prison inmates: Prisonization revisited. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30, 399–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Walters, G. D. (2013). Delinquency, parental involvement, early adult criminality, and sex: Evidence of moderated mediation. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 777–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Walters, G. D. (2014a). Crime and substance misuse in adjudicated delinquent youth: The worst of both worlds. Law and Human Behavior, 38, 139–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Walters, G. D. (2014b). Drugs, crime, and their relationships: Theory, research, practice, and policy. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.Google Scholar
  68. Walters, G. D. (2014c). Pathways to early delinquency: Exploring the individual and collective contributions of difficult temperament, low maternal involvement, and externalizing behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42, 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Walters, G. D. (2014d). Testing the direct, indirect, and moderated effects of childhood animal cruelty on future aggressive and non-aggressive offending. Aggressive Behavior, 40, 238–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Walters, G. D. (2015). Parental attitude toward deviance as a predictor of delinquency: Making the connection via perception and cognition. Journal of Adolescence, 39, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Walters, G. D. (2016a). Neighborhood context, youthful offending, and peer selection: Does it take a village to raise a non-delinquent? Criminal Justice Review, 41, 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Walters, G. D. (2016b). Criminal thought content and criminal thought process as mediators of peer influence: Combined versus individual effects. Criminal Justice Review, 41, 318–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Walters, G. D. (2016c). From prison to the streets: Can importation work in reverse? Law and Human Behavior, 40, 660–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Walters, G. D. (2016d). The parent-peer interface: Does inductive parenting reduce the criminogenic effect of delinquent peers? Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14, 411–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Walters, G. D. (2016e). The working alliance between substance abusing offenders and their parole officers and counselors: Its impact on outcome and role as a mediator. Journal of Crime and Justice, 39, 421–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Walters, G. D. (2017). Unsupervised routine activities as a mediator of the parental knowledge‒delinquency relationship. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  77. Walters, G. D. (in press). Proactive criminal thinking and deviant identity as mediators of the peer influence effect. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice.Google Scholar
  78. Walters, G. D., & Lowenkamp, C. T. (2016). Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders. Psychological Assessment, 28, 652–659.Google Scholar
  79. Walters, G. D., & Yurvati, E. (2017). Testing the construct validity of the PICTS proactive and reactive scores against six putative measures of proactive and reactive criminal thinking. Psychology, Crime & Law, 23, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Walters, G. D., Elliott, W. N., & Miscoll, D. (1998). Use of the Psychological Iventory of Criminal Thinking Styles in a group of female offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 25, 125–134.Google Scholar
  81. Warren, M., & Rosenbaum, J. (1986). Criminal careers of female offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 13, 393–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Welsh, B. C. (2004). Monetary costs and benefits of correctional treatment programs: Implications for offender reentry. Federal Probation, 68(2), 9–13.Google Scholar
  83. Werb, D., Rowell, G., Guyatt, G., Kerra, T., Montaner, J., & Wood, E. (2011). Effect of drug law enforcement on drug market violence: A systematic review. International Journal of Drug Policy, 22, 87–94.Google Scholar
  84. Western, B., Kling, J. R., & Weiman, D. F. (2001). The labor market consequences of incarceration. Crime & Delinquency, 47, 410–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wood, P., & Grasmick, H. (1999). Toward the development of punishment equivalencies: Male and female inmates rate the severity of alternative sanctions compared to prison. Justice Quarterly, 16, 19–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zahn, M. A., Agnew, R., Fishbein, D., Miller, S., Winn, D.-M., … & Chesney-Lind, M. (2010, April). Girls study group: Understanding and responding to girls’ delinquency. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  87. Zehr, H. (2005). Changing lenses—A new focus for crime and justice (3rd ed.). Scottdale, PA: Herald Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kutztown UniversityKutztownUSA

Personalised recommendations