Advertisement

Assessing the Criminal Lifestyle

  • Glenn D. Walters
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave's Frontiers in Criminology Theory book series (FCRT)

Abstract

This chapter offers an inside look into the psychological assessment process. Markers of biologically based constructs, such as temperament, are examined first. This is followed by a review of static risk factors, obtained through behavioral observation, official records, and self-reports of prior behavioral outcomes. The third section of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of needs assessment and the measurement of dynamic risk factors that have been found useful in planning and implementing treatment and prevention programs.

Keywords

Psychological assessment Markers Risk factors Need factors 

References

  1. Arsenio, W. F., & Lemerise, E. A. (Eds.). (2010). Emotions, aggression, and morality in children: Bridging development and psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  2. Ascione, F. R., & Shapiro, K. (2009). People and animals, kindness and cruelty: Research directions and policy implications. Journal of Social Issues, 65, 569–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura, A., Barbarnelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Center for Human Resource Research. (2009). NLSY79 user’s guide. Columbus, OH: CHRR NLS User Services, The Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  5. Dadds, M. R., Whiting, C., & Hawes, D. J. (2006). Associations among cruelty to animals, family conflict, and psychopathic traits in childhood. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 411–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dolan, M. C., & Rennie, C. E. (2007). Is juvenile psychopathy associated with low anxiety and fear in conduct-disordered male offenders? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 1028–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Forth, A. E., Kosson, D., & Hare, R. D. (2003). Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  8. Gendreau, P., Grant, B. A., Leipciger, M., & Collins, C. (1979). Norms and recidivism rates for the MMPI and selected experimental scales on a Canadian delinquent sample. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 11, 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gillard, N. D., & Rogers, R. (2015). Denial of risk: The effects of positive impression management on risk assessments for psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 42(43), 106–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gresham, F. M., Lane, K. L., & Lambros, K. M. (2000). Comorbidity of conduct problems and ADHD: Identification of ‘fledgling psychopaths’. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hamlyn, B., Maxwell, C., Hales, J., & Tait, C. (2003). The 2003 Crime and Justice Survey (England and Wales) (Technical report). London, England: National Centre for Social Research/BMRB Social Research.Google Scholar
  12. Hare, R. D. (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Rvised manual (2nd ed.). Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  13. Huizinga, D., & Jakob-Chien, C. (1998). The contemporaneous co-occurrence of serious and violent juvenile offending and other problem behaviors. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 47–67). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Kolko, D. J., & Kazdin, A. E. (1991). Aggression and psychopathology in match-playing and firesetting children: Replication and extension. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kolla, N. J., Dunlop, K., Downar, J., Links, P., Bagby, R., ... Meyer, J. H. (2016). Association of ventral stratum monoamine oxidase-a binding and functional connectivity in antisocial personality disorder with high impulsivity: A positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 26, 777–786.Google Scholar
  16. Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C. J., Benning, S. D., & Kramer, M. D. (2007). Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: An integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 645–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kyranides, M. N., Fanti, K. A., & Panayiotou, G. (2016). The disruptive adolescent as a grown-up: Predicting adult startle responses to violent and erotic films from adolescent conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38, 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Landau, S. F. (1978). Thought content of delinquent and nondelinquent young adults: The effect of institutionalization. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 5, 195–210.Google Scholar
  19. Loza, W. (2005). Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ): A tool for assessing violent and nonviolent recidivism. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  20. Lykken, D. T. (1957). A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 6–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McLellan, A. T., Kushner, H., Metzger, D., Peters, R., Smith, I., & Grissom, G. (1992). The fifth edition of the Addiction Severity Index. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9, 199–213.Google Scholar
  22. Mills, J. F., & Kroner, D. G. (2005). An investigation into the relationship between socially desirable responding and offender self-report. Psychological Services, 2, 70–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ó Ciardha, C., Alleyne, E. K. A., Tyler, N., Barnoux, M. F. L., Mozova, K., & Gannon, T. A. (2015). Examining the psychopathology of incarcerated male firesetters using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Psychology, Crime & Law, 21, 606–616.Google Scholar
  24. Peterson, J. L., & Zill, N. (1986). Marital disruption, parent-child relationships, and behavioral problems in children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 295–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Evans, D. E. (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sakheim, G. A., Vigdor, M. G., Gordon, M., & Helprin, L. M. (1985). A psychological profile of juvenile firesetters in residential treatment. Child Welfare, 64, 453–476.Google Scholar
  28. Simourd, D. J. (1997). The Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified and Pride in Delinquency scale: Psychometric properties and construct validity of two measures of criminal attitudes. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 24, 52–70.Google Scholar
  29. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  30. Varghese, F. P., Charlton, S. R., Wood, M., & Trower, E. (2014). Temporal discounting and criminal thinking: Understanding cognitive processes to align services. Psychological Services, 11, 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Walters, G. D. (1995). The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles: Part I. Reliability and initial validity. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 22, 307–325.Google Scholar
  32. Walters, G. D. (1997). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Lifestyle Criminality Screening Form. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 24, 294–308.Google Scholar
  33. Walters, G. D. (2011). Screening for malingering/exaggeration of psychiatric symptomatology in prison inmates using the PICTS confusion and infrequency scales. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56, 444–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Walters, G. D. (2012a). Crime in a psychological context: From career criminals to criminal careers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Walters, G. D. (2012b). Criminal thinking and recidivism: Meta-analytic evidence on the predictive and incremental validity of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS). Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 272–278.Google Scholar
  36. Walters, G. D. (2015). A two-dimensional model of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: A multi-sample investigation using items from the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Personality and Individual Differences, 78, 88–93.Google Scholar
  37. Walters, G. D. (2016). Predicting recidivism with the Criminal Sentiments Scale: A meta-analysis of a putative measure of criminal thought content. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43, 1159–1172.Google Scholar
  38. Walters, G. D. (2017a). Animal cruelty and firesetting as behavioral markers of fearlessness and disinhibition: Putting two-thirds of Macdonald’s triad to work. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 28, 10–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Walters, G. D. (2017b). Child and adolescent maltreatment as a mediator of continuity in both callous-unemotional traits and low self-control. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  40. Walters, G. D. (2017c). Reactive cognitive style as a mediator of the low self-control‒early school maladjustment relationship. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  41. Walters, G. D., & Cohen, T. H. (2016). Criminal thought process as a dynamic risk factor: Variable- and person-oriented approaches to recidivism prediction. Law and Human Behavior, 40, 411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Walters, G. D., & Kiehl, K. A. (2015). Limbic correlates of fearlessness and disinhibition in incarcerated youth: Exploring the brain-behavior relationship with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Psychiatry Research, 230, 205–210.Google Scholar
  43. Walters, G. D., & Lowenkamp, C. T. (2016). Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders. Psychological Assessment, 28, 652–659.Google Scholar
  44. Walters, G. D., & Morgan, R. D. (2017). Assessing criminal thought content: Development and preliminary validation of the Criminal Thought Content Inventory (CTCI). Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  45. Walters, G. D., & Noon, A. (2015). Family context and externalizing correlates of childhood animal cruelty in adjudicated delinquents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30, 1369–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Walters, G. D., & Yurvati, E. (2017). Testing the construct validity of the PICTS proactive and reactive scores against six putative measures of proactive and reactive criminal thinking. Psychology, Crime & Law, 23, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Walters, G. D., White, T. W., & Denney, D. (1991). The Lifestyle Criminality Screening Form: Preliminary data. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 18, 406–418.Google Scholar
  48. Webster, C. D., Douglas, K. S., Eaves, D., & Hart, S. D. (1997). HCR-20: Assessing risk for violence (Version 2). Burnaby, BC, Canada: Simon Fraser University, Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  49. Weinberger, D. A., & Schwartz, G. E. (1990). Distress and restraint as superordinate dimensions of self-reported adjustment: A typological perspective. Journal of Personality, 58, 381–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kutztown UniversityKutztownUSA

Personalised recommendations