Advertisement

Tracing the Roots of Criminal Lifestyle Theory

  • Glenn D. Walters
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave's Frontiers in Criminology Theory book series (FCRT)

Abstract

Chapter 1 provides an overview of lifestyle theory and describes how it is rooted in nonlinear dynamical systems (chaos) theory and the conceptualizations of other criminological theorists. The first half of the chapter introduces the reader to chaos theory, describes what is meant by nonlinear dynamical systems theory, and defines the seven chaotic principles used to clarify concepts and relationships in the lifestyle theory of crime. The second half of the chapter identifies ten theorists or theorist teams that have provided much of the foundation upon which the lifestyle theory of crime is based: i.e., Yochelson & Samenow, Bandura, Sykes & Matza, Farrington & West, Hare, Gottfredson & Hirschi, Sutherland, Clarke & Felson, Cooley & Meade, and Agnew.

Keywords

Nonlinear dynamical systems theory Chaos Criminological theory 

References

  1. Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social Forces, 64, 151–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akers, R. L. (1998). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Arrigo, B. A., & Barrett, L. (2008). Philosophical criminology and complex systems science: Towards a critical theory of justice. Critical Criminology, 16, 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A., Barbarnelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76, 169–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker, H. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  10. Briggs, J., & Peat, F. D. (1989). Turbulent mirror: An illustrated guide to chaos theory and the science of wholeness. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  11. Cleckley, H. (1976). The mask of sanity (5th Edn.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. (Original work published 1941).Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooley, C. H. (1964). Human nature and the social order. New York: Schacken. (Original work published 1902).Google Scholar
  14. Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (Eds.). (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  15. Crutchfield, J. P., Farmer, J. D., Packard, N. H., & Shaw, R. S. (1986). Chaos. Scientific American, 261, 45–57.Google Scholar
  16. Farrington, D. P. (1992). Criminal career research in the United Kingdom. British Journal of Criminology, 32, 521–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farrington, D. P. (2003). Developmental and life-course criminology: Key theoretical and empirical issues. Criminology, 41, 221–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farrington, D. P., Coid, J. W., Harnett, L., Jolliffe, D., Soterious, N., … West, D. J. (2006). Criminal careers and life success: New findings from the Cambridge study in delinquent development (p. 281). London: Home Office (Research Findings No. 281).Google Scholar
  19. Frick, P. J., Ray, J. V., Thornton, L. C., & Kahn, R. E. (2014). Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a new science. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  21. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Grasmick, H. G., Tittle, C. R., Bursik, R. J., Jr., & Arneklev, B. K. (1993). Testing the core empirical implications of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hare, R. D. (1996). Psychopathy: A clinical construct whose time has come. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23, 25–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hare, R. D. (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised manual (2nd ed.). Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  25. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. (1983). Age and the explanation of crime. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 552–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. (1993). Commentary: Testing the general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jensen, G. F. (1995). Salvaging structure through strain: A theoretical and empirical critique. In F. Adler & W. S. Laufer (Eds.), Advances in criminological theory: The legacy of anomie theory (Vol. 6, pp. 139–158). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  29. Kellert, S. (1994). In the wake of chaos. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  30. Khalil, H. K. (2001). Nonlinear systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  31. LaGrange, T. C., & Silverman, R. A. (1999). Low self-control and opportunity: Testing the general theory of crime as an explanation for gender differences in delinquency. Criminology, 37, 41–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lemert, E. M. (1951). Social pathology: A systematic approach to the theory of sociopathic behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  33. Leonov, G. A., & Kuznetsov, N. V. (2013). Hidden attractors in dynamical systems. From hidden oscillations in Hilbert-Kolmogorov, Aizerman, and Kalman problems to hidden chaotic attractor in Chua circuits. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 23, 1330002.Google Scholar
  34. Lorenz, E. (1979). Predictability: Does the flap of a butterfly’s wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  35. Mandelbröt, B. (1990). Fractals—A geometry of nature. New Scientist, 15, 38–43.Google Scholar
  36. Matsueda, R. L., & Anderson, K. (1998). The dynamics of delinquent peers and delinquent behavior. Criminology, 36, 269–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Matza, D. (1964). Delinquency and drift. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  39. Merton, R. K. (1957). Social theory and social structure (rev ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  40. Micceri, T. (1989). The unicorn, the normal curve, and other improbably creatures. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 156–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Minor, W. W. (1984). Neutralization as a hardening process: Considerations in the modeling of change. Social Forces, 62, 995–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2000). The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 38, 931–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Sellers, C. S., Winfree, T., Madensen, T. D., Gau, J., et al. (2010). The empirical status of social learning theory: A meta-analysis. Justice Quarterly, 27, 765–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Prigogine, I., & Stengers, I. (1984). Order out of chaos. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  46. Reed, G. E., & Yeager, P. C. (1996). Organizational offending and neoclassical criminology: Challenging the reach of a general theory of crime. Criminology, 34, 357–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reid, C. L. (1998). A balanced review of Yochelson-Samenow’s theory of “the criminal personality”. The Justice Professional, 10, 333–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Schmidt, P., & Witte, A. D. (1984). An economic analysis of crime and justice. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  50. Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  51. Sykes, G., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22, 664–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tittle, C. R., Villemez, W. J., & Smith, D. A. (1978). The myth of social class and criminality: An empirical assessment of the empirical evidence. American Sociological Review, 43, 643–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Eenwyk, J. (1991). Archetypes: The strange attractors of the psyche. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 36, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Walters, G. D. (1990). The criminal lifestyle: Patterns of serious criminal conduct. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Walters, G. D. (1999). Crime and chaos: Applying nonlinear dynamic principles to problems in criminology. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 43(2), 134–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Walters, G. D. (2000). Beyond behavior: Construction of an overarching psychological theory of lifestyles. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  57. Walters, G. D. (2002). Criminal belief systems: An integrated-interactive theory of lifestyles. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  58. Walters, G. D. (2012). Crime in a psychological context: From career criminals to criminal careers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  59. Walters, G. D. (2015a). A two-dimensional model of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: A multi-sample investigation using items from the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Personality and Individual Differences, 78, 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Walters, G. D. (2015b). The decision to commit crime: Rational or nonrational? Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society, 16(3), 1–18.Google Scholar
  61. Walters, G. D. (2016). Low self-control, peer rejection, reactive criminal thinking, and delinquent peer associations: Connecting the pieces of the crime puzzle. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 2, 209–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Walters, G. D., & White, T. W. (1989). The thinking criminal: A cognitive model of lifestyle criminality. Criminal Justice Research Bulletin, 4, 4.Google Scholar
  63. Warr, M., & Stafford, M. (1991). The influence of delinquent peers: What they think or what they do? Criminology, 29, 851–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Weiner, B. (1990). Attribution in personality psychology. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 465–485). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  65. West, D. J. (1969). Present conduct and future delinquency. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  66. West, D. J., & Farrington, D. P. (1977). The delinquent way of life. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  67. Wieland-Burston, J. (1992). Chaos and order in the world of the psyche. New York: Routlege.Google Scholar
  68. Williams, C. R., & Arrigo, B. A. (2002). Law, psychology, and justice: Chaos theory and the new disorder. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  69. Wortley, R. (2014). Rational choice and offender decision-making: Lessons from the cognitive sciences. In B. Leclerc & R. Wortley (Eds.), Cognition and crime: Offender decision-making and script analysis (pp. 237–252). London, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Yochelson, S., & Samenow, S. E. (1976). The criminal personality. A profile for change (Vol. 1). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kutztown UniversityKutztownUSA

Personalised recommendations