Advertisement

Creating Better Human Motivation Theories for Personal Flourishing in Organizations

  • Manuel Guillén
Chapter

Abstract

In order to pursue organizational objectives effectively and to develop skills and virtues that lead to flourishing in the workplace, motivation has to be properly understood and explained. This study contends that the classical and most popular taxonomies describing employee motives and needs have either neglected or minimized the importance of the ethical and spiritual dimensions of motivation, resulting in a model of a person as self-interested, amoral and non-spiritual. This work summarizes, discusses and expands some of the ideas recently published by the author and two other colleagues in the Journal of Business Ethics. There they presented a new categorization of motivations that brings out the full dimensions of being human. Now, the author suggests promoting more critical thinking in the classroom by explaining this taxonomy in relationship with personal flourishing in organizations.

Keywords

Motivations Maslow Extrinsic Intrinsic Transcendent Religious Spiritual 

References

  1. Adams, J. S. (1963) ‘Toward an Understanding of Inequity’, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(5), pp. 422–436.Google Scholar
  2. Alderfer, C. P. (1969) ‘An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs’, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4(2), pp. 142–175.Google Scholar
  3. Allport, G. W. (1961) Pattern and Growth in Personality, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  4. Aquinas, T. (1990) A Summa of the Summa, Kreeft, P. (ed.). San Francisco: Ignatius Press.Google Scholar
  5. Argandoña, A. (2011) ‘Beyond Contracts. Love in Firms’, Journal of Business Ethics, 99(1), pp. 77–85.Google Scholar
  6. Aristotle (1984) ‘Nicomachean Ethics’, in Barnes, J. (ed.) The Complete Works of Aristotle. The Revised Oxford Translation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ashmos, D. P. and Duchon, D. (2000) ‘Spirituality at Work: A Conceptualization and Measure’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), pp. 134–145.Google Scholar
  8. Bruce, W. and Novinson, J. (1999) ‘Spirituality in Public Service: A Dialogue’, Public Administration Review, 59(2), pp. 163–169.Google Scholar
  9. Cavanagh, G. F. and Bandsuch, M. R. (2002) ‘Virtue as a Benchmark for Spirituality in Business’, Journal of Business Ethics, 38(1/2), pp. 109–117.Google Scholar
  10. Clough, W. R. (2006) ‘To Be Loved and to Love’, Journal of Psychology and Theology, 34(1), pp. 23–31.Google Scholar
  11. Doherty, W. J. (1995) Soul Searching: Why Psychotherapy Must Promote Moral Responsibility. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Dukerich, J. M. et al. (2000) ‘Moral Intensity and Managerial Problem Solving’, Journal of Business Ethics, 24(1), pp. 29–38.Google Scholar
  13. Fagley, N. S. and Adler, M. G. (2012) ‘Appreciation: A Spiritual Path to Finding Value and Meaning in the Workplace’, Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 9(2), pp. 167–187.Google Scholar
  14. Frankl, V. E. (1966) ‘Self-Transcendence as a Human Phenomenon’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 6(2), pp. 97–106.Google Scholar
  15. Ghoshal, S. (2005) ‘Bad Management Theories are Destroying Good Management Practices’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(1), pp. 75–91.Google Scholar
  16. Gotsis, G. and Kortezi, Z. (2008) ‘Philosophical Foundations of Workplace Spirituality: A Critical Approach’, Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), pp. 575–600.Google Scholar
  17. Guillén, M. (2006) Ética en las organizaciones. Construyendo confianza, Madrid: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Guillén, M., Ferrero, I. and Hoffman, W. M. (2015) ‘The Neglected Ethical and Spiritual Motivations in the Workplace’, Journal of Business Ethics, 128(4), pp. 803–816.Google Scholar
  19. Herzberg, F. (1968) ‘One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?’, Harvard Business Review, 46(1), pp. 53–62.Google Scholar
  20. Hume, D. (1998) An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, Beauchamp, T. L. (ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kahn, M. B. and Sheikh, N. N. (2012) ‘Human Resource Development, Motivation and Islam’, Journal of Management Development, 31(10), pp. 1021–1034.Google Scholar
  22. Karakas, F. (2010) ‘Spirituality and Performance in Organizations: A Literature Review’, Journal of Business Ethics, 94(1), pp. 89–106.Google Scholar
  23. King, S. M. (2006) ‘The Moral Manager: Vignettes of Virtue from Virginia’, Public Integrity, 8(2), pp. 113–133.Google Scholar
  24. Lersch, P. (1938) Aufbau der Person. Munchen: Barth.Google Scholar
  25. Li, J. M. (2012) ‘Philosophy, Training and Spirituality: A Longitudinal, Empirical Study’, Chinese Management Studies, 6(4), pp. 582–597.Google Scholar
  26. Locke, E. A. and Latham, G. P. (1979) ‘Goal Setting: A Motivational Technique that Works!’, Organizational Dynamics, 8(2), pp. 68–80.Google Scholar
  27. Lopez, S. J., Linley, A. and Rath, T. (eds) (2009) The Encyclopaedia of Positive Psychology. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  28. Maslow, A. H. (1954) Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper&Brothers.Google Scholar
  29. Maslow, A. H. (1970) Motivation and Personality. 2nd edn. New York: Harper&Row.Google Scholar
  30. Maslow, A. H. (1971) The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. New York: Viking Press.Google Scholar
  31. McClelland, D. C. (1962) ‘Business Drive and National Achievement’, Harvard Business Review, 40(4), pp. 99–112.Google Scholar
  32. McCullough, M. E. and Snyder, C. R. (2000) ‘Classical Sources of Human Strength: Revisiting an Old Home and Building a New One’, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  33. Melé, D. (2003) ‘The Challenge of Humanistic Management’, Journal of Business Ethics, 44(1), pp. 77–88.Google Scholar
  34. Mitroff, I. I. and Denton, E. A. (1999) ‘A Study of Spirituality in the Workplace’, Sloan Management Review, 40(4), pp. 83–92.Google Scholar
  35. Pargament, K. I. and Mahoney, A. (2002) ‘Spirituality: Discovering and Conserving the Sacred’, in Snyder, C. R., and Lopez, S. J. (eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 646–659.Google Scholar
  36. Pérez-López, J. A. (1993) Fundamentos de la dirección de empresas. Madrid: Rialp.Google Scholar
  37. Petchsawang, P. and Duchon, D. (2012) ‘Workplace Spirituality, Meditation, and Work Performance’, Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 9(2), pp. 189–208.Google Scholar
  38. Peterson, C. and Seligman, M. E. P. (2004) Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Rubenstein, R. L. (1987) Spirit Matters: The Worldwide Impact of Religion on Contemporary Politics. New York: Paragon House.Google Scholar
  40. Ryan, R. M. and Deci, E. L. (2000) ‘Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions’ Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), pp. 54–67.Google Scholar
  41. Ryff, C. D. and Singer, B. H. (1998) ‘The Contours of Positive Human Health’, Psychological Inquiry, 9(1), pp. 1–28.Google Scholar
  42. Sheldrake, P. (2007) A Brief History of Spirituality. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  43. Skinner, B. F. (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  44. Smith, H. (2000) Why Religion Matters: The Fate of the Human Spirit in an Age of Disbelief. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  45. Tepper, B. J. (2003) ‘Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Spiritual Employee’, in Giacalone, R. A. and Jurkiewicz, C. L. (eds) Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 181–190.Google Scholar
  46. United Nations (1948) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.Google Scholar
  47. Vroom, V. H. (1964) Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  48. Weaver, G. R. and Agle, B. R. (2002) ‘Religiosity and Ethical Behavior in Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective’, Academy of Management Review, 27(1), pp. 77–97.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Ethics in Communication and Organizations (IECO)University of ValenciaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations