Melancholy and Depression
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This chapter traces the history of depression back to Greek Hippocratic medicine. An unbalance of the humours constituting the human body, with a prevalence of black bile , was associated with the low mood condition thus called “melancholia”. This view also led to the development of treatments such as emetics and cathartics , and of widespread bloodletting . Radical evolutions occurred with the foundation of modern psychiatry and the classification of mental diseases by Emil Kraepelin , and with psychoanalysis and the concepts of neurosis and psychodynamic depressive adaptation to life events provided by Sigmund Freud . Depression dramatically changed with the changes in the organisation of society and medicine; its manifestations, causes and prevalence fundamentally depend on the nature of the diagnostic criteria, whose evolution are analysed in detail in this chapter.
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