How to Overcome a Resistant Cervix for Hysteroscopy

  • Alessandro Favilli
  • Mario Grasso
  • Sandro Gerli
  • Ivan Mazzon


Both in diagnostic and operative setting, the cervical canal is the way that surgeon has to take in order to access the uterine cavity. In the beginning, due to its anatomical characteristics, crossing the cervix represented the first problem that the pioneers of hysteroscopy had to face to reach the uterine cavity. In the last few decades hysteroscopy has developed in terms of technology and execution technique. Nevertheless, resistant cervix and pain, often related to it, still remain the most common causes of failure to complete the procedure in diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy. Several pathologies may affect the cervical canal, creating the condition for a resistant cervix. Nevertheless, behind a consistent number of resistant cervixes there is the lack of an adequate study of the cervical canal during diagnostic hysteroscopy, the poor knowledge of the pathologies that can be encountered and procedures incorrectly performed. The knowledge of characteristics and pathology of cervical canal as well as the hysteroscopic techniques conceived to solve such hindrances could help the surgeon to easily overcome a resistant cervix.


Hysteroscopy Cervical stenosis Cervical canal Uterine cavity Resistant cervix 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Favilli
    • 1
  • Mario Grasso
    • 2
  • Sandro Gerli
    • 3
  • Ivan Mazzon
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Translational Medicine and Surgery Research Doctoral ProgramUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.“Arbor Vitae” CentreClinica Nuova Villa ClaudiaRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Centre of Reproductive MedicineUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly

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