Hysteroscopy pp 665-675 | Cite as

TBC and Hysteroscopy

  • Sushma Deshmukh


Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major cause of illness and death worldwide for ages and continues to be so as a major health problem. Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is a rare disease in developed countries, but it is a frequent cause of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and causes significant pelvic morbidity due to uterine adhesions and infertility in developing countries. Hysteroscopy is a useful modality in diagnosing endometrial TB. It plays an important role in evaluation of uterine cavity and is of immense help in treating infertility as well as in reproductive failure.


  1. 1.
    Varma T. Global library of women’s medicine. ISSN: 1756–2228. 2008 doi:10.3843/GLOWM,10034.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kumar S. Female genital tuberculosis. In: Sharma SK, Mohan A, editors. Tuberculosis. 1st ed. Delhi: Jaypee; 2001. p. 311–24.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Global Tuberculosis control: surveillance, planning, financing, WHO report 2008.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Global tuberculosis report 2016. An uphill battle in the fight against TB 13 Oct 2016.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kumar S. Female genital tuberculosis. In: Sharma SK, Mohan A, editors. Tuberculosis. 1st ed. Delhi: Jaypee; 2001. p. 311–24.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jahromi BN, Rarsanezhad ME, Ghane-Shirazi R. Female genital tuberculosis and infertility. Int J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;75:269–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tripathy SN, Tripathy SN. Genital tubeculosis, an update. In: Tripathy SN, editor. Current issues in OB/gynecology, vol 1. Delhi: Jaypee; 2004. p. 202–28.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schaefer G. Female genital tuberculosis clm. Obstet Gynecal. 1976;19:23.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nogales-Ortiz F, Tarancion I, Nogales FF Jr. The pathology of female genital tuberculosis: a 31 years study of 1436 cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1979;53:422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raghupathy R, Makhseed M, Azizieh F. Th-1and TH-2 cytokine profiles in successful pregnancy and unexplained recurrent abortions. Reprod Immunol. 1999;14:149–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khurana A, Sahi G. Ultrasound in female genital tuberculosis: a retrospective series. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2017;49(1):28. First published: 1 Oct 2013Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sharma JB, Malgotra M, Pundir P, Arora R. Cervical tuberculosis masquerading as cervical carcinoma: a rare case. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2001;51:184.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qureshi RN, Samad S, Hamid R, Lakha SF. Female genital tuberculosis revised. J Pak Med Assos. 2001;61:16–8.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cicinelli E, Tinelli R, Colafiglio G, Saliani N, Pastore A. Tubercular endometritis: a rare condition reliably detectable with fluid hysteroscopy. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2008;15(6):752–4. doi: 10.1016/j.jmig.2008.07.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kumar A, Kumar A. Endometrial tuberculosis. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2004;11(1):2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scrimin F, Limone A, Wiesenfeld U, Guaschino S. Tubercular endometritis visualized as endometrial micropolyps during hysteroscopic procedure. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010;281(6)):1079–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seror S, Faivre E, Prevot S, Deffieux X. Tuberculosis endometrial polyp. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2013:176124.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kumar A, Kumar A. Hysteroscopic findings of starry sky appearance and impregnated cobwebs in the endometrial tubercolosis. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2014;126:280–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bukulmez O, Yarali H, Gurgan T. Total corporal synechiae due to tuberculosis carry a very poor prognosis following hysteroscopic synechialysi. Hum Reprod. 1999;14(8):1960–1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sharma JB, Roy KK, Pushparaj M, Gupta N, Jain SK, Malhotra N, Mittal S. Genital tuberculosis: an important cause of Asherman’s syndrome in India. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;277(1):37–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gürgan T, Yarali H, Urman B, Dagli V, Dogan L. Uterine rupture following hysteroscopic lysis of synechiae due to tuberculosis and uterine perforation. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(2):291–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sharma JB, Roy KK, Pushparaj M, Kumar S. Hysteroscopic findings in women with primary and secondary infertility due to genital tuberculosis. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2009;104:49–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Director-Central India Test Tube Baby CentreDeshmukh HospitalNagpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrtics and GynaecologyGetwell Hospital and Research InstituteNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations