Hysteroscopy pp 661-664 | Cite as

Chronic Endometritis

  • Ettore Cicinelli
  • Paola Carmela Mitola
  • Francesco Maria Crupano
  • Raffaele Tinelli
  • Giuseppe Trojano
Chapter

Abstract

Chronic endometritis (CE) is a subtle pathology characterized by a chronic inflammation of the endometrial lining. Symptoms can be mild or absent and CE is a frequent finding in women complaining of infertility in spontaneous as well as IVF cycles. Etiology is also a challenge issue; it is multifactorial and not fully known. Endometrial cultures are positive in about 60% of cases. The most frequently involved agents are common bacteria, mycoplasma and ureaplasma and chlamydia. Hystology is the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, due to the presence of inflammations cell the normal endometrium, even histological examination may miss the diagnosis. Diagnostic hysteroscopy with fluid distention of the uterine cavity is an effective tool for diagnosing CE and permits to detect fine aspects of the endometrial lining. Micro-polyps are the most specific signs for CE, and they are easily detected as they float into the distention medium. By means of fluid hysteroscopy is possible to evaluate the severity of endometrial inflammation.

Keywords

Chronic endometritis Office hysteroscopy Endometrial micro-polyps Inflammation Infertility Recurrent pregnancy loss 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ettore Cicinelli
    • 1
  • Paola Carmela Mitola
    • 1
  • Francesco Maria Crupano
    • 1
  • Raffaele Tinelli
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Trojano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2University of BariBariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyPerrino HospitalBrindisiItaly

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