Hysteroscopy pp 649-658 | Cite as

Vaginal Lesions Diagnosed and Treated with Hysteroscopy

  • Brunella Zizolfi
  • Fabrizia Santangelo
  • Ursula Catena
  • Carmine Nappi
  • Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo


Vaginal lesions represent an unusual, often underestimated, cause of genital complaints. The vaginoscopic approach for hysteroscopy offers a detailed endoscopic evaluation of the vaginal canal before accessing the uterine cavity since the vaginal walls, fornices, and esocervix can be easily and accurately examined through the magnification of the images on the monitor. This approach has contributed to the development and widespread use of hysteroscopy in an office-based setting, reducing patient discomfort, and suitable for use among women who have not been sexually active or have severe vaginal atrophy or stenosis. The recent technologic advancements, with the use of miniaturized mechanical instruments and the introduction of a versatile bipolar electrosurgery system dedicated to hysteroscopy, have made possible not only diagnosing but also treating uterine, cervical, and vaginal lesions in the office setting. Vaginoscopy shouldn’t be only an easier way to get into the cervical canal, but also an important tool in the hands of the gynecologist to diagnose and treat vaginal lesions, which required more invasive and traumatic approaches.


Vaginoscopy Office hysteroscopy Vaginoscopic approach Vaginal lesion Vagino-hysteroscopy 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brunella Zizolfi
    • 1
  • Fabrizia Santangelo
    • 2
  • Ursula Catena
    • 2
  • Carmine Nappi
    • 1
  • Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public Health, School of MedicineUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry, School of MedicineUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly

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