Hysteroscopy Classification for Endometrial Cancer
Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecological cancer in Western countries. It usually presents with abnormal uterine bleeding, and current methods of dilation and curettage and office endometrial biopsy both present with a problem of upgraded pathological grade when compared with final hysterectomy results. Office hysteroscopic examination has a sensitivity of 78% for endometrial cancer. Evaluation of the background endometrium is necessary for comparison with the neoplastic lesion. Cerebroid pattern suggests at least a low-grade endometrial cancer. If glomerular pattern is present, high-grade endometrial cancer is highly suspected. Inspection begins with the endocervix, then a panoramic view of the endometrium. The neoplastic lesion should be compared with the background endometrium. Endocervix should be evaluated again to determine cervical involvement. A well-targeted biopsy can aid in a precise preoperative diagnosis.
KeywordsDiagnostic hysteroscopy Endometrial cancer Glomerular pattern Cerebroid pattern
- 17.Singh S, Best C, Dunn S, Leyland N, Wolfman WL, Clinical Practice—Gynaecology C, et al. Abnormal uterine bleeding in pre-menopausal women. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2013;35(5):473–9.Google Scholar
- 37.Obermair A, Geramou M, Gucer F, Denison U, Graf AH, Kapshammer E, et al. Does hysteroscopy facilitate tumor cell dissemination? Incidence of peritoneal cytology from patients with early stage endometrial carcinoma following dilatation and curettage (D&C) versus hysteroscopy and D&C. Cancer. 2000;88(1):139–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar