Hysteroscopy pp 103-109 | Cite as

Hysteroscopy in Complex Müllerian Anomalies

  • Nash S. Moawad
  • Estefania Santamaria


Müllerian anomalies include embryologic abnormalities of the uterus, cervix, and vagina, and are believed to occur secondary to the in utero disruption of the embryological development of the paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts. The incidence of Müllerian anomalies is difficult to estimate because many patients are asymptomatic; uterine septum is the most common anomaly. A number of classification systems exist to facilitate diagnosis and treatment options. The most recently developed European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society of Gynecologic Endoscopy (ESGE) system takes into account anomalies of the uterus as well as those of the cervix and vagina. Using classification systems aids in the diagnosis of anomalies through multiple imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, 3D ultrasound, and hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy is an extremely valuable tool in assessing female reproductive organs, and its minimally invasive approach has made it a vital therapeutic tool in the outpatient setting for women. Major advances in hysteroscopic surgery and instrumentation have led to hysteroscopic septoplasty virtually replacing open surgery in recent years. Hysteroscopy is cost-effective, and patients benefit from a quick recovery, minimal complications, and good reproductive outcomes.


Müllerian anomalies Hysteroscopy Uterine septum Vaginal septum Reproductive outcomes 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Florida College of MedicineGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of Florida College of MedicineGainesvilleUSA

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