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The Vaginoscopical Approach: 25 Years Later

  • Paola Cramarossa
  • Fabiana Divina Fascilla
  • Oronzo Ceci
  • Stefano Bettocchi
Chapter

Abstract

Twenty-five years ago, we introduced vaginoscopy as a new approach in diagnostic hysteroscopy. Previously the tenaculum and speculum were routinely used, generating discomfort in patients. Furthermore the procedure could not be performed in virgos or in patients with vaginal stenosis. Our aim was to reduce patient’s discomfort and to increase the possible applications of this powerful means, such as vaginal pathologies. Vaginoscopy is easy to perform and incurs no additional cost for the patient. It is ideal for office hysteroscopy and in patients who might otherwise require general anesthesia, such as virgins and older women with stenosis of the lower genital tract. After all this time the vaginoscopical approach has become the rule in office hysteroscopy: hundreds of thousands of office procedures all over the world are nowadays performed without any other instrument except for a 5 or 4 mm hysteroscope through vaginoscopy.

Keywords

Vaginoscopy Vaginoscopical approach Office hysteroscopy Ambulatory hysteroscopy Vaginal pathology 

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Suggested Reading

  1. Chapa HO, Venegas G. Vaginoscopy compared to traditional hysteroscopy for hysteroscopic sterilization. A randomized trial. J Reprod Med. 2015;60(1-2):43–7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paola Cramarossa
    • 1
  • Fabiana Divina Fascilla
    • 1
  • Oronzo Ceci
    • 1
  • Stefano Bettocchi
    • 1
  1. 1.II Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department “D.I.M.O.”University “Aldo Moro” of BariBariItaly

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