• Ioannis N. GrigoriadisEmail author
Part of the Reform and Transition in the Mediterranean book series (RTM)


This chapter introduces the terms “majoritarianism” and “populism”, the distinction between majoritarian and consensus democracies, and goes over the respective criteria, according to the literature on democracy. While majoritarianism refers to the rule of the majority without any consideration of the views or the rights of the minority, consensus democracy refers to the rule of as big a majority as possible. It then justifies the choice of Greece and Turkey as cases where majoritarianism has witnessed a rise in the context of democratic transition.


Majoritarianism Populism Consensus Democratization Greece Turkey Democracy 


  1. Bruce A. Ackerman, The Failure of the Founding Fathers: Jefferson, Marshall, and the Rise of Presidential Democracy (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005).Google Scholar
  2. Jeffrey J. Anderson, “Europeanization and the Transformation of the Democratic Polity, 1945–2000”, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 40, no. 5 (2002), pp. 793–822.Google Scholar
  3. Senem Aydın-Düzgit and E. Fuat Keyman, The Trump Presidency and the Rise of Populism in the Global Context (Istanbul: Istanbul Policy Center (IPC), 2017).Google Scholar
  4. José Antônio Cheibub, Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2007).Google Scholar
  5. Zachary Elkins, Tom Ginsburg and James Melton, The Endurance of National Constitutions (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009).Google Scholar
  6. Jon Elster, “On Majoritarianism and Rights”, E. Eur. Const. Rev., Vol. 19, no. 1 (1992), pp. 19–24.Google Scholar
  7. Cengiz Erisen and Paul Kubicek, “Conceptualizing Democratic Consolidation in Turkey” in Cengiz Erisen and Paul Kubicek, eds., Democratic Consolidation in Turkey: Micro and Macro Challenges (Oxford & New York: Routledge, 2016a), pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  8. Cengiz Erisen and Paul Kubicek, eds., Democratic Consolidation in Turkey: Micro and Macro Challenges (Oxford & New York: Routledge, 2016b).Google Scholar
  9. Julio Faundez, “In Defense of Presidentialism: The Case of Chile, 1932–1970” in Scott Mainwaring and Matthew S. Shugart, eds., Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  10. Hanspeter Kriesi, “The Political Opportunity Structure of New Social Movements: Its Impact on Their Mobilization” in J. Craig Jenkins and Bert Klandermans, eds., The Politics of Social Protest: Comparative Perspectives on States and Social Movements, 1995, pp. 167–98.Google Scholar
  11. Arend Lijphart, Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984).Google Scholar
  12. Arend Lijphart, Thomas C. Bruneau, P. Nikiforos Diamandouros and Richard Gunther, “A Mediterranean Model of Democracy? The Southern European Democracies in Comparative Perspective”, West European Politics, Vol. 11, no. 1 (1988), pp. 7–25.Google Scholar
  13. Arend Lijphart, “The Southern European Examples of Democratization: Six Lessons for Latin America”, Government and Opposition, Vol. 25, no. 1 (1990), pp. 68–84.Google Scholar
  14. Arend Lijphart, “Constitutional Choices for New Democracies”, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 2, no. 1 (1991a), pp. 73–84.Google Scholar
  15. Arend Lijphart, “Majoritarian Versus Consensual Democracy” in Bernard E. Brown, ed., Comparative Politics: Notes and Readings (New York: Harcourt College, 1991b), pp. 175–84.Google Scholar
  16. Arend Lijphart, “Introduction” in Arend Lijphart, ed., Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  17. Arend Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  18. Arend Lijphart, Thinking About Democracy: Power Sharing and Majority Rule in Theory and Practice (London & New York: Routledge, 2007).Google Scholar
  19. Arend Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012).Google Scholar
  20. Juan J. Linz, “The Perils of Presidentialism”, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 1, no. 1 (1990), pp. 51–69.Google Scholar
  21. Juan J. Linz and Arturo Valenzuela, The Failure of Presidential Democracy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994).Google Scholar
  22. Juan J. Linz, “Presidential or Parliamentary Democracy: Does It Make a Difference?” in Juan J. Linz and Arturo Valenzuela, eds., The Crisis of Presidential Democracy: The Latin American Evidence (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), pp. 3–87.Google Scholar
  23. Scott Mainwaring, “Presidentialism, Multipartism, and Democracy: The Difficult Combination”, Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 26, no. 2 (1993), pp. 198–228.Google Scholar
  24. Scott Mainwaring and Matthew S Shugart, “Juan Linz, Presidentialism, and Democracy: A Critical Appraisal”, Comparative Politics (1997), pp. 449–71.Google Scholar
  25. Wolfgang Merkel, “Embedded and Defective Democracies”, Democratization, Vol. 11, no. 5 (2004), pp. 33–58.Google Scholar
  26. Nicos P. Mouzelis, Politics in the Semi-Periphery: Early Parliamentarism and Late Industrialization in the Balkans and Latin America (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986).Google Scholar
  27. Cas Mudde and Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser, Populism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).Google Scholar
  28. Jan-Werner Muller, What Is Populism? (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016).Google Scholar
  29. Matthew S. Shugart, “Of Presidents and Parliaments”, East European Constitutional Review, Vol. 2, no. 1 (1993), pp. 30–32.Google Scholar
  30. Alan Siaroff, “Comparative Presidencies: The Inadequacy of the Presidential, Semi-Presidential and Parliamentary Distinction”, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 42, no. 3 (2003), pp. 287–312.Google Scholar
  31. Alfred Stepan and Cindy Skach, “Constitutional Frameworks and Democratic Consolidation: Parliamentarianism Versus Presidentialism”, World Politics, Vol. 46, no. 1 (1993), pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  32. Kaare Strøm, “Parliamentary Democracy: Promise and Problems” in Wolfgang C. Müller, Bergman Torbjörn and Kaare Strøm, eds., Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 55–108.Google Scholar
  33. George Tsebelis, “Decision Making in Political Systems: Veto Players in Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, Multicameralism and Multipartyism”, British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 25, no. 3 (1996), pp. 289–325.Google Scholar
  34. Thanos Veremis, Greeks and Turks in War and Peace (Athens: Athens News, 2007).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political Science and Public AdministrationBilkent UniversityBilkent, AnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations