Surgical Sperm Retrieval

  • O. Kalejaiye
  • A. Raheem
  • D. Ralph


Infertility is the failure to conceive after regular unprotected sexual intercourse for at least 1 year. Male factor infertility is responsible for an estimated 25% of all cases of couple infertility. Azoospermia is found in approximately 15–20% of infertile men. The causes of azoospermia can be divided into obstructive and non-obstructive. Obstructive azoospermia (OA) may be due to an obstruction at any point along the male reproductive tract. It is usually associated with normal sized testis and hormonal profile, with dilatation of the epididymis. A past history of a vasectomy, inguinal hernia repair or symptoms of haematospermia with ejaculatory pain all suggest a possible cause of obstructive azoospermia.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Kalejaiye
    • 2
    • 1
  • A. Raheem
    • 1
    • 3
  • D. Ralph
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity College HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of AndrologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of AndrologyCairo UniversityCairoEgypt

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