Heritage Protection and Traditional Cultural Expressions in Africa

  • Enyinna Nwauche


In this chapter, the protection of traditional cultural expressions through the existing national protection of tangible heritage in African states is considered and evaluated. Ordinarily, the possibility of protection of traditional cultural expressions, which are often also intangible heritage, through a system designed for tangible heritage would appear to be remote because of their different mediums of expression. So long as tangible heritage is imagined to be different from intangible heritage, it would appear that tangible heritage protection serves little purpose for intangible heritage protection. If on the other, tangible heritage is intricately bound with intangible heritage, heritage protection is important.


Heritage Site African State Ownership Management Sacred Grove National Monument 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abungu, G., & Bungu, L. (1998). Saving the past in Kenya: Urban and monument conservation. African Archaeological Review, 15, 221–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barsh, R. L. (1999). How do you patent a landscape? The perils of dichotomizing cultural and intellectual property. International Journal of Cultural Property, 8, 14–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beukes, M. (2009). A tug of war between heritage conservation and property rights: Some success at last for heritage conservation – City of Cape Town v Oudekraal Estates (Pty) Ltd [2007] JOL 20087 (C). International Journal of Cultural Property, 16, 67–83.Google Scholar
  4. Chirikure, S., & Pwiti, G. (2008). Community involvement in archaeology and cultural heritage management: An assessment from case studies in Southern Africa and elsewhere. Current Anthropology, 49, 467–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chirikure, S., Manyanga, M., Ndoro, W., & Pwiti, G. (2010). Unfulfilled promises? Heritage management and community participation at some of Africa’s cultural heritage sites. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 16, 30–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coombe, R. (2009). First nations cultural heritage concerns: Prospects for protection of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions in international law. In C. E. Bell & R. K. Paterson (Eds.), Protection of First Nations cultural heritage: Laws, policy, and reform (pp. 247–277). Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  7. Eboreime, J. (2008). Challenges of heritage management in Africa. In W. Ndoro, A. Mumma, & G. Abungu (Eds.), Cultural heritage and the law: Protecting Immovable Heritage in English-speaking countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (pp. 1–5). Rome: ICCOM.Google Scholar
  8. Hall, A. (2008). Powers and obligations in heritage legislation. In W. Ndoro, A. Mumma, & G. Abungu (Eds.), Cultural heritage and the law protecting immovable heritage in English speaking countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (Vol. 8, pp. 65–76). Rome: ICCROM Conservation Studies.Google Scholar
  9. Hall, A. (2009). Initiating a review of national heritage legislation in the South African experience. In W. Ndoro & G. Pwiti (Eds.), Legal frameworks for the protection of immovable cultural heritage in Africa (Vol. 5, pp. 36–41). Rome: ICCROM Conservation Studies.Google Scholar
  10. Hayland, A. (1995). Monuments conservation practice in Ghana: Issues of policy and management. Journal of Architectural Conservation, 1, 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jonker, J. (2005). Excavating the legal subject: The unnamed dead of Prestwich Place, Cape Town. Griffith Law Review, 14, 187–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kankpeyeng, B. W., & DeCorse, C. R. (2005). Ghana’s vanishing past: Development, antiquities and the destruction of the archaeological record. African Archaeological Record, 21, 89–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Marschall, N. (2014). eNanda online: Sharing Zulu cultural heritage on the internet. International Journal of Intangible Heritage, 9, 120–133.Google Scholar
  14. Munjeri, D. (2004). Tangible and intangible heritage: From difference to convergence. International Museums, 56, 12–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nair, V. S. (2016). Perceptions, legislation and management of cultural heritage in Ethiopia. International Journal of Cultural Property, 23, 99–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ndlovu, N. (2011). Legislation as an instrument in South African heritage management: Is it effective? Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 13, 31–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Négri, V. (2008). Introduction to heritage law in Africa. In W. Ndoro, A. Mumma, & G. Abungu (Eds.), Cultural heritage and the law: Protecting immovable heritage in English-speaking countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (Vol. 8, pp. 7–10). Rome: ICCROM Conservation Studies.Google Scholar
  18. Nicholas, G., Bell, C., Coombe, R., Welch, J., Noble, B., Anderson, J., et al. (2010). Intellectual property issues in heritage management. Heritage and Society, 3, 117–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shyllon, F. (1996). Cultural heritage legislation and management in Nigeria. International Journal of Cultural Property, 5, 235–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shyllon, F. (2016). Cultural heritage and intellectual property: Convergence, divergence and interface. In W. Logan, M. N. Craith, & U. Kockel (Eds.), A companion to heritage studies (pp. 55–68). Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enyinna Nwauche
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of LawRhodes University GrahamstownGrahamstownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations