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Perspectives of Low-Temperature Biomass Production of Polar Microalgae and Biotechnology Expansion into High Latitudes

  • Jana Kvíderová
  • Satya P. Shukla
  • Benjamin Pushparaj
  • Josef ElsterEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The adaptation mechanisms of polar microalgae (including cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae) evolved to withstand the harsh polar environment characterized by low temperature, freeze-thaw cycles, desiccation, salinity, and high and variable photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiation. Hence, polar microalgae developed ecological, physiological, and molecular defensive and adaptive strategies, which include the synthesis of a tremendous diversity of compounds originating from different metabolic pathways which protect them against the abovementioned stresses. Production of different biological compounds and various biotechnological applications, for instance, water treatment technology in low-temperature environments and many others, are the perspectives for humans, which widely explore the polar regions. In this review, the nonmarine environmental conditions in polar environments and microalgal adaptations are summarized with respect to possible biotechnological applications. The review also provides a survey of the possible compounds to be exploited from polar microalgae. Possible constructions of photobioreactors for mass cultivation of microalgae are proposed for operations in polar regions.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research was supported by project LM2015078—CzechPolar2—Czech Polar Research Infrastructure (MŠMT) and the long-term research development project no. RVO 67985939 (IB). We would like to thank Assoc. Prof. R. K. Edwards for language correction.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jana Kvíderová
    • 1
  • Satya P. Shukla
    • 2
  • Benjamin Pushparaj
    • 3
  • Josef Elster
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Polar Ecology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Aquatic Environment Management DivisionCentral Institute of Fisheries Education, 11MumbaiIndia
  3. 3.ISE-CNR Istituto per lo Studio degli EcosistemiSesto FiorentinoItaly
  4. 4.Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicTřeboňCzech Republic

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