Estrogen Receptors in Cell Membranes: Regulation and Signaling
Estrogens can stimulate the development, proliferation, migration, and survival of target cells. These biological effects are mediated through their action upon the plasma membrane estrogen receptors (ERs). ERs regulate transcriptional processes by nuclear translocation and binding to specific response elements, which leads to the regulation of gene expression. This effect is termed genomic or nuclear. However, estrogens may exert their biological activity also without direct binding to DNA and independently of gene transcription or protein synthesis. This action is called non-genomic or non-nuclear. Through non-genomic mechanisms, estrogens can modify regulatory cascades such as MAPK, P13K, and tyrosine cascade as well as membrane-associated molecules such as ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptors. The recent studies on the mechanisms of estrogen action provide an evidence that non-genomic and genomic effects converge. An example of such convergence is the potential possibility to modulate gene expression through these two independent pathways. The understanding of the plasma membrane estrogen receptors is crucial for the development of novel drugs and therapeutic protocols targeting specific receptor actions.
This work was supported by Statutory Funds of Wroclaw Medical University No.: ST.E130.17.013.
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