Central Pain-Allied Conditions (CPAC)

  • Sergio Canavero
  • Vincenzo Bonicalzi


This chapter describes conditions that do not fit the definition of central pain as given in the introduction chapter but have central mechanisms.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Asadi-Pooya AA, Asadollahi M, Sperling MR. Ictal pain: occurrence, clinical features, and underlying etiologies. Epilepsy Behav. 2016;61:59–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kuloğlu Pazarcı N, Bebek N, Baykan B, Gürses C, Gökyiğit A. Reappraisal of epileptic pain as a rare symptom of seizures. Epilepsy Behav. 2016;55:101–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reynolds JR. Epilepsy: its symptoms, treatment and relation to other chronic convulsive diseases. London: Churchill; 1861.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gowers WR. Epilepsy and other chronic convulsive disease: their causes, symptoms, and treatment. London: Churchill; 1901.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Falco-Walter JJ, Stein M, McNulty M, Romantseva L, Heydemann P. ‘Tickling’ seizures originating in the left frontoparietal region. Epilepsy Behav Case Rep. 2016;6:49–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Penfield W, Gage L. Cerebral localization of epileptic manifestations. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1933;30:709–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Siegel AM, Williamson PD, Roberts DW, Thadani VM, Darcey TM. Localized pain associated with seizures originating in the parietal lobe. Epilepsia. 1999;40:845–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scholz J, Vieregge P, Moser A. Central pain as a manifestation of partial epileptic seizures. Pain. 1999;80:445–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Roebling R, Lerche H. Painful seizures associated with a lesion in the midcingulate cortex. J Neurol. 2009;256:1012–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Montavont A, Mauguière F, Mazzola L, Garcia-Larrea L, Catenoix H, Ryvlin P, Isnard J. On the origin of painful somatosensory seizures. Neurology. 2015;84(6):594–601.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Szűcs A, Horváth A, Rásonyi G, Fabó D, Szabó G, Sákovics A, Kamondi A. Ictal analgesia in temporal lobe epilepsy—the mechanism of seizure-related burns. Med Hypotheses. 2015;85(2):173–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pagni CA, Canavero S. Paroxysmal perineal pain resembling tic douloureux, only symptom of a dorsal meningioma. Ital J Neurol Sci. 1993;14:323–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cherrick AA, Ellenberg M. Spinal cord seizures in transverse myelopathy: report of two cases. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1986;67(2):129–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meythaler JM, Tuel SM, Cross LL. Spinal cord seizures: a possible cause of isolated myoclonic activity in traumatic spinal cord injury: case report. Paraplegia. 1991;29(8):557–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cheon SM, Park MJ, Kim WJ, Kim JW. Non-motor off symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24(2):311–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dellapina E, Gerdelat-Mas A, Ory-Magne F, Pourcel L, Galitzky M, Calvas F, Simonetta-Moreau M, Thalamas C, Payoux P, Brefel-Courbon C. Apomorphine effect on pain threshold in Parkinson’s disease: a clinical and positron emission tomography study. Mov Disord. 2011;26(1):153–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dellapina E, Ory-Magne F, Regragui W, Thalamas C, Lazorthes Y, Rascol O, Payoux P, Brefel-Courbon C. Effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on pain in Parkinson’s disease. Pain. 2012;153(11):2267–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Santos-García D, Abella-Corral J, Aneiros-Díaz Á, Santos-Canelles H, Llaneza-González MA, Macías-Arribi M. Dolor en la enfermedad de Parkinson: prevalencia, características, factores asociados y relación con otros síntomas no motores, calidad de vida, autonomía y sobrecarga del cuidador. Rev Neurol. 2011;52(7):385–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ciampi de Andrade D, Lefaucheur JP, Galhardoni R, Ferreira KS, Brandão Paiva AR, Bor-Seng-Shu E, Alvarenga L, Myczkowski ML, Marcolin MA, de Siqueira SR, Fonoff E, Barbosa ER, Teixeira MJ. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates small fiber-dependent sensory thresholds in Parkinson’s disease. Pain. 2012;153(5):1107–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim HJ, Jeon BS, Lee JY, Paek SH, Kim DG. The benefit of subthalamic deep brain stimulation for pain in Parkinson disease: a 2-year follow-up study. Neurosurgery. 2012;70(1):18–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oshima H, Katayama Y, Morishita T, Sumi K, Otaka T, Kobayashi K, Suzuki Y, Fukaya C, Yamamoto T. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation for attenuation of pain related to Parkinson disease. J Neurosurg. 2012;116(1):99–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vela L, Cano-de-la-Cuerda R, Fil A, Muñoz-Hellín E, Ortíz-Gutiérrez R, Macías-Macías Y, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C. Thermal and mechanical pain thresholds in patients with fluctuating Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18(8):953–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wen HB, Zhang ZX, Wang H, Li L, Chen H, Liu Y, Zhang B, Xu Q. Epidemiology and clinical phenomenology for Parkinson’s disease with pain and fatigue. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18(Suppl 1):S222–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brefel-Courbon C, Ory-Magne F, Thalamas C, Payoux P, Rascol O. Nociceptive brain activation in patients with neuropathic pain related to Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19(5):548–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Granovsky Y, Schlesinger I, Fadel S, Erikh I, Sprecher E, Yarnitsky D. Asymmetric pain processing in Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol. 2013;20(10):1375–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hara T, Hirayama M, Mizutani Y, Hama T, Hori N, Nakamura T, Kato S, Watanabe H, Sobue G. Impaired pain processing in Parkinson’s disease and its relative association with the sense of smell. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013;19(1):43–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marques A, Chassin O, Morand D, Pereira B, Debilly B, Derost P, Ulla M, Lemaire JJ, Durif F. Central pain modulation after subthalamic nucleus stimulation: a crossover randomized trial. Neurology. 2013;81(7):633–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rana A, Saeed U, Masroor MS, Yousuf MS, Siddiqui I. A cross-sectional study investigating clinical predictors and physical experiences of pain in Parkinson’s disease. Funct Neurol. 2013;28(4):297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tykocki T, Kornakiewicz A, Mandat T, Nauman P. Pain perception in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Clin Neurosci. 2013;20(5):663–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cury RG, Galhardoni R, Fonoff ET, Dos Santos Ghilardi MG, Fonoff F, Arnaut D, Myczkowski ML, Marcolin MA, Bor-Seng-Shu E, Barbosa ER, Teixeira MJ, Ciampi de Andrade D. Effects of deep brain stimulation on pain and other nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2014;83(16):1403–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wallace VC, Chaudhuri KR. Unexplained lower limb pain in Parkinson’s disease: a phenotypic variant of “painful Parkinson’s disease”. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20(1):122–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Aschermann Z, Nagy F, Perlaki G, Janszky J, Schwarcz A, Kovacs N, Bogner P, Komoly S, Orsi G. ‘Wind-up’ in Parkinson’s disease: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Eur J Pain. 2015;19(9):1288–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen Y, Mao CJ, Li SJ, Wang F, Chen J, Zhang HJ, Li L, Guo SS, Yang YP, Liu CF. Quantitative and fiber-selective evaluation of pain and sensory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2015;21(4):361–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kass-Iliyya L, Kobylecki C, McDonald KR, Gerhard A, Silverdale MA. Pain in multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy compared to Parkinson’s disease. Brain Behav. 2015;5(5):e00320.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mao CJ, Chen JP, Zhang XY, Chen Y, Li SJ, Li J, Xiong KP, Hu WD, Liu CF. Parkinson’s disease patients with pain suffer from more severe non-motor symptoms. Neurol Sci. 2015;36(2):263–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tan Y, Tan J, Luo C, Cui W, He H, Bin Y, Deng J, Tan R, Tan W, Liu T, Zeng N, Xiao R, Yao D, Wang X. Altered brain activation in early drug-naive Parkinson’s disease during heat pain stimuli: an fMRI study. Parkinsons Dis. 2015;2015:273019.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lin XJ, Yu N, Lin XG, Zhang YF, Chen Y, Zhang K, Wang XS, Liu WG. A clinical survey of pain in Parkinson’s disease in Eastern China. Int Psychogeriatr. 2016;28(2):283–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Valkovic P, Minar M, Singliarova H, Harsany J, Hanakova M, Martinkova J, Benetin J. Pain in Parkinson’s disease: a cross-sectional study of its prevalence, types, and relationship to depression and quality of life. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0136541.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Abe K, Chiba Y, Katsuse O, Hirayasu Y. A case of Parkinson Disease with both visual hallucination and pain improved by gabapentin. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2016;39(1):55–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hanihara T, Takahashi T, Washizuka S, Ogihara T, Kobayashi M. Delusion of oral parasitosis and thalamic pain syndrome. Psychosomatics. 2009;50:534–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Belasen A, Rizvi K, Gee LE, Yeung P, Prusik J, Ramirez-Zamora A, Hanspal E, Paiva P, Durphy J, Argoff CE, Pilitsis JG. Effect of low-frequency deep brain stimulation on sensory thresholds in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurosurg. 2016;22:1–7.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Belasen A, Youn Y, Gee L, Prusik J, Lai B, Ramirez-Zamora A, Rizvi K, Yeung P, Shin DS, Argoff C, Pilitsis JG. The effects of mechanical and thermal stimuli on local field potentials and single unit activity in Parkinson’s disease patients. Neuromodulation. 2016;19:698–707.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Priebe JA, Kunz M, Morcinek C, Rieckmann P, Lautenbacher S. Electrophysiological assessment of nociception in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a multi-methods approach. J Neurol Sci. 2016;368:59–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yust-Katz S, Hershkovitz R, Gurevich T, Djaldetti R. Pain in Extrapyramidal Neurodegenerative Diseases. Clin J Pain. 2017;33(7):635–39.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Petschow C, Scheef L, Paus S, Zimmermann N, Schild HH, Klockgether T, Boecker H. Central pain processing in early-stage Parkinson’s disease: a laser pain fMRI study. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164607.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Canavero S. Central pain and Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(2):282–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cury RG, Galhardoni R, Fonoff ET, Perez Lloret S, Dos Santos Ghilardi MG, Barbosa ER, Teixeira MJ, Ciampi de Andrade D. Sensory abnormalities and pain in Parkinson disease and its modulation by treatment of motor symptoms. Eur J Pain. 2016;20(2):151–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jung YJ, Kim HJ, Jeon BS, Park H, Lee WW, Paek SH. An 8-year follow-up on the effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on pain in Parkinson disease. JAMA Neurol. 2015;72(5):504–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tinazzi M, Valeriani M, Squintani G, Corrà F, Recchia S, Defazio G, Berardelli A. Nociceptive pathway function is normal in cervical dystonia: a study using laser-evoked potentials. J Neurol. 2012;259(10):2060–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ohtomo R, Tsuji S, Iwata A. Persistent pain as a non-motor symptom in corticobasal syndrome. J Clin Neurosci. 2016;29:35–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gamble GE, Barberan E, Laasch HU, Bowsher D, Tyrrell PJ, Jones AK. Poststroke shoulder pain: a prospective study of the association and risk factors in 152 patients from a consecutive cohort of 205 patients presenting with stroke. Eur J Pain. 2002;6(6):467–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Roosink M, Renzenbrink GJ, Buitenweg JR, van Dongen RT, Geurts AC, Ijzerman MJ. Somatosensory symptoms and signs and conditioned pain modulation in chronic post-stroke shoulder pain. J Pain. 2011;12(4):476–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zeilig G, Rivel M, Weingarden H, Gaidoukov E, Defrin R. Hemiplegic shoulder pain: evidence of a neuropathic origin. Pain. 2013;154(2):263–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lindgren I, Ekstrand E, Lexell J, Westergren H, Brogårdh C. Somatosensory impairments are common after stroke but have only a small impact on post-stroke shoulder pain. J Rehabil Med. 2014;46(4):307–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zeilig G, Rivel M, Doron D, Defrin R. Does hemiplegic shoulder pain share clinical and sensory characteristics with central neuropathic pain? A comparative study. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2016;52(5):662–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Roosink M, Renzenbrink GJ, Geurts AC, Ijzerman MJ. Towards a mechanism-based view on post-stroke shoulder pain: theoretical considerations and clinical implications. NeuroRehabilitation. 2012;30(2):153–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zhu Y, Su B, Li N, Jin H. Pain management of hemiplegic shoulder pain post stroke in patients from Nanjing, China. Neural Regen Res. 2013;8(25):2389–98.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rubin DI, Palmer SC. Chronic neuropathic shoulder pain. The diagnosis is just a “black hole”. Neurol Clin Pract. 2012;2:258–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lee H, Rosenmann H, Chapman J, Kingsley PB, Hoffmann C, Cohen OS, Kahana E, Korczyn AD, Prohovnik I. Thalamo-striatal diffusion reductions precede disease onset in prion mutation carriers. Brain. 2009;132:2680–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Macleod MA, Stewart GE, Zeidler M, Will R, Knight R. Sensory features of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Neurol. 2002;249(6):706–1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Spencer MD, Knight RS, Will RG. First hundred cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: retrospective case note review of early psychiatric and neurological features. BMJ. 2002;324(7352):1479–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kanata A, Saigoh K, Mitsui Y, Kitamoto T, Kusunoki S. [Case of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS-P102L) mimicking variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in clinical manifestation and MRI findings]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2008;48(3):179–83. JapaneseGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hayashi Y, Iwasaki Y, Yoshikura N, Asano T, Hatano T, Tatsumi S, Satoh K, Kimura A, Kitamoto T, Yoshida M, Inuzuka T. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata determined by an easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images in a case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Neurol Sci. 2015;358(1–2):447–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Konno S, Murata M, Toda T, Yoshii Y, Nakazora H, Nomoto N, Sugimoto H, Nemoto H, Wakata N, Fujioka T, Kurihara T. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease with a codon 200 mutation presenting as thalamic syndrome: diagnosis by single photon emission computed tomography using (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer. Intern Med. 2008;47(1):65–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Machado A, Soares H, Antunes H, Magalhães Z, Ferreira C, Baldeiras I, Ribeiro MH, Santana I, Ramalheira J, Castro L, Carpenter S. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob [corrected] disease: the second case in Portugal and in the same geographical region. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(2):180–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Scherder EJ, Plooij B. Assessment and management of pain, with particular emphasis on central neuropathic pain, in moderate to severe dementia. Drugs Aging. 2012;29(9):701–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    van Kooten J, Binnekade TT, van der Wouden JC, Stek ML, Scherder EJ, Husebø BS, Smalbrugge M, Hertogh CM. A review of pain prevalence in Alzheimer’s, vascular, frontotemporal and Lewy body dementias. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2016;41(3–4):220–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ukai K, Fujishiro H, Ozaki N. Effectiveness of low-dose pregabalin in three patients with Lewy body disease and central neuropathic pain. Psychogeriatrics. 2017;17(2):115–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kallio-Laine K, Seppänen M, Lokki ML, Lappalainen M, Notkola IL, Seppälä I, Koskinen M, Valtonen V, Kalso E. Widespread unilateral pain associated with herpes simplex virus infections. J Pain. 2008;9(7):658–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kirveskari E, Vartiainen NV, Kallio-Laine K, Kalso E, Forss N. Normal laser-evoked cortical responses in patients with chronic hemibody pain. Eur J Pain. 2015;19(8):1168–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vartiainen N, Kallio-Laine K, Hlushchuk Y, Kirveskari E, Seppanen M, Autti H, Jousmaki V, Forss N, Kalso E, Hari R. Changes in brain function and morphology in patients with recurring herpes simplex virus infections and chronic pain. Pain. 2009;144:200–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Vartiainen N, Kirveskari E, Kallio-Laine K, Kalso E, Forss N. Cortical reorganization in primary somatosensory cortex in patients with unilateral chronic pain. J Pain. 2009;10:854–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jääskeläinen SK. Pathophysiology of primary burning mouth syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123(1):71–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goadsby PJ. Neurovascular headache and a midbrain vascular malformation: evidence for a role of the brainstem in chronic migraine. Cephalalgia. 2002;22:107–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Afridi S, Goadsby PJ. New onset migraine with a brain stem cavernous angioma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(5):680–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fragoso YD, Brooks JB. Two cases of lesions in brainstem in multiple sclerosis and refractory migraine. Headache. 2007;47(6):852–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Friedman D. Unilateral headache associated with a pontine infarction. Cephalalgia. 2010;30(12):1524–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Goel R, Kumar S, Panwar A, Singh AB. Pontine infarct presenting with atypical dental pain: a case report. Open Dent J. 2015;9:337–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Seifert CL, Schönbach EM, Magon S, Gross E, Zimmer C, Förschler A, Tölle TR, Mühlau M, Sprenger T, Poppert H. Headache in acute ischaemic stroke: a lesion mapping study. Brain. 2016;139(Pt 1):217–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Seifert CL, Mallar Chakravarty M, Sprenger T. The complexities of pain after stroke—a review with a focus on central post-stroke pain. Panminerva Med. 2013;55(1):1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sprenger T, Seifert CL, Valet M, Andreou AP, Foerschler A, Zimmer C, Collins DL, Goadsby PJ, Tölle TR, Chakravarty MM. Assessing the risk of central post-stroke pain of thalamic origin by lesion mapping. Brain. 2012;135(Pt 8):2536–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brefel-Courbon C, Payoux P, Thalamas C, Ory F, Quelven I, Chollet F, Montastruc JL, Rascol O. Effect of levodopa on pain threshold in Parkinson’s disease: a clinical and positron emission tomography study. Mov Disord. 2005;20:1557–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Djaldetti R, Shifrin A, Rogowski Z, Sprecher E, Melamed E, Yarnitsky D. Quantitative measurement of pain sensation in patients with Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2004;62:2171–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gerdelat-Mas A, Simonetta-Moreau M, Thalamas C, Ory-Magne F, Slaoui T, Rascol O, Brefel-Courbon C. Levodopa raises objective pain threshold in Parkinson’s disease: a RIII reflex study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:1140–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Giuffrida R, Vingerhoets FJ, Bogousslavsky J, Ghika J. Pain in Parkinson’s disease. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2005;161:407–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Goetz CG, Tanner CM, Levy M, Wilson RS, Garron DC. Pain in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 1986;1:45–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lee MA, Walker RW, Hildreth TJ, Prentice WM. A survey of pain in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;32:462–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lim SY, Farrell MJ, Gibson SJ, Helme RD, Lang AE, Evans AH. Do dyskinesia and pain share common pathophysiological mechanisms in Parkinson’s disease? Mov Disord. 2008;23:1689–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Machnev SO, Levin OS. Pain and pain thresholds in Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Pain. 2007;11(S1):S134 (Abstr. 303).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Magrinelli F, Zanette G, Tamburin S. No evidence of a neuropathic origin in hemiplegic shoulder pain. Pain. 2013;154(6):958–9 [Authors’ reply: Zeilig G, Rivel M, Weingarden H, Gaidoukov E, Defrin R. Evidence of a neuropathic origin in hemiplegic shoulder pain. Pain. 2013;154(6):959–60].Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mylius V, Engau I, Teepker M, Stiasny-Kolster K, Schepelmann K, Oertel WH, Lautenbacher S, Möller JC. Pain sensitivity and descending inhibition of pain in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:24–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nandhagopal R, Troiano AR, Mak E, Schulzer M, Bushnell MC, Stoessl AJ. Response to heat pain stimulation in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Pain Med. 2010;11:834–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nolano M, Provitera V, Estraneo A, Selim MM, Caporaso G, Stancanelli A, Saltalamacchia AM, Lanzillo B, Santoro L. Sensory deficit in Parkinson’s disease: evidence of a cutaneous denervation. Brain. 2008;131:1903–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Slaoui T, Mas-Gerdelat A, Ory-Magne F, Rascol O, Brefel-Courbon C. La lévodopa modifie les seuils nociceptifs chez le patient parkinsonien. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2007;163(1):66–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Snider SR, Fahn S, Isgreen WP, Cote LJ. Primary sensory symptoms in parkinsonism. Neurology. 1976;26:423–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tinazzi M, Del Vesco C, Fincati E, Ottaviani S, Smania N, Moretto G, Fiaschi A, Martino D, Defazio G. Pain and motor complications in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77(7):822–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Vela L, Lyons KE, Lieberman AN. Pain-pressure threshold in patients with Parkinson’s disease with and without dyskinesia. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2007;13:189–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zambito Marsala S, Tinazzi M, Vitaliani R, Recchia S, Fabris F, Marchini C, Fiaschi A, Moretto G, Giometto B, Macerollo A, Defazio G. Spontaneous pain, pain threshold, and pain tolerance in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol. 2011;258:627–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Canavero
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Bonicalzi
    • 2
  1. 1.HEAVEN/GEMINI International Collaborative GroupTurinItaly
  2. 2.AOUCittà della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Department of Neurosciences, Rita Levi MontalciniUniversità di TorinoTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations