Mind–Body Techniques

  • Sergio Canavero
  • Vincenzo Bonicalzi
Chapter

Abstract

Psychological treatment is targeted on pain cognition, e.g., catastrophizing, pain-related beliefs and coping, and social factors. In particular, catastrophizing is a predictor of a worse outcome for neuropathic pain, including CP [1]. Emotional and cognitive factors (e.g., anxiety, depression, and anger or, vice versa, positive emotions) are known to alter the perceived intensity of pain (the “salience”) but also the associated autonomic responses. Pain of longer durations, depression, anger, helplessness, and pain magnification, especially in single males, are independent predictor factors of suicidal ideation. On the other hand, women affected by CPSP use spiritual and religious activities as a coping strategy and perceive their emotional state as the cause of their pain [2]. In line with this finding, there is a significant positive correlation between spiritual well-being and both pain self-efficacy and satisfaction with life in SCI patients [3]. Importantly, elevated impulsive and neurotic personality tendencies and depressed mood are indicators of heightened risk of pain medication misuse [4].

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Canavero
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Bonicalzi
    • 2
  1. 1.HEAVEN/GEMINI International Collaborative GroupTurinItaly
  2. 2.AOUCittà della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Department of Neurosciences, Rita Levi MontalciniUniversità di TorinoTurinItaly

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