Spinal Cord Stimulation

  • Sergio Canavero
  • Vincenzo Bonicalzi


SCS (aka dorsal column stimulation) can be applied via surgical or percutaneous implantation of stimulating electrodes. Stimulation can be in tonic low-frequency (generally 50–100 Hz), high-frequency (up to 10 kHz; pulsed, 500 kHz; [1]), or burst (paresthesia-free) mode. A definitive pacemaker is applied after a suitable test period, in the abdomen or upper gluteus. SCS is a generally safe technique, but, despite perfect hemostasis and no preoperative risk factors, an epidural hematoma can be induced (2.6% with laminectomy implantation, 0.84% with percutaneous leads) necessitating urgent removal [2].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Canavero
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Bonicalzi
    • 2
  1. 1.HEAVEN/GEMINI International Collaborative GroupTurinItaly
  2. 2.AOUCittà della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Department of Neurosciences, Rita Levi MontalciniUniversità di TorinoTurinItaly

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