Opioids and Antagonists

  • Sergio Canavero
  • Vincenzo Bonicalzi


Opioids (including tramadol and, pending confirmation, cebranopadol) are not indicated in the routine management of CP, alone or in combination (e.g., with aminergics) [1, 2]. The first patient in history to be diagnosed with CP was also opioid unresponsive [3]. Most chronic pain patients on long-term opioids report strong or very strong pain, highlighting their inefficacy [4, 5]. In short-term clinical trials of PNP, the NNT for strong opioids was 4.3 and for tramadol 4.7.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Canavero
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Bonicalzi
    • 2
  1. 1.HEAVEN/GEMINI International Collaborative GroupTurinItaly
  2. 2.AOUCittà della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Department of Neurosciences, Rita Levi MontalciniUniversità di TorinoTurinItaly

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