Efficient Wireless Power Transfer Maximization Algorithms in the Vector Model

  • Ioannis KatsidimasEmail author
  • Sotiris Nikoletseas
  • Theofanis P. Raptis
  • Christoforos Raptopoulos


Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. However, those works are limited by the system modeling, and more specifically the one-dimensional abstraction suggested by Friis formula for the power received by one antenna under idealized conditions given another antenna some distance away.

Different to those works, we use a model which arises naturally from fundamental properties of the superposition of energy fields. This model has been shown to be more realistic than other one-dimensional models that have been used in the past and can capture superadditive and cancellation effects. Under this model, we define two new interesting problems for configuring the wireless power transmitters so as to maximize the total power in the system and we prove that the first problem can be solved in polynomial time. We present a distributed solution that runs in pseudopolynomial time and uses various knowledge levels and we provide theoretical performance guarantees. Finally, we design three heuristics for the second problem and evaluate them experimentally.


  1. 1.
    C.M. Angelopoulos, S. Nikoletseas, T.P. Raptis, Wireless energy transfer in sensor networks with adaptive, limited knowledge protocols. Comput. Netw. 70, 113–141 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Boyd, L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Dai, Y. Liu, G. Chen, X. Wu, T. He, Scape: safe charging with adjustable power, in 2014 IEEE 34th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), June (2014), pp. 439–448Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Gao, G. Wu, Y. Liu, F. Zhang, Bounded end-to-end delay with transmission power control techniques for rechargeable wireless sensor networks. AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun. 68(5), 395–405 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Griffin, C. Detweiler, Resonant wireless power transfer to ground sensors from a UAV, in 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May (2012), pp. 2660–2665Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Guo, C. Wang, Y. Yang, Mobile data gathering with wireless energy replenishment in rechargeable sensor networks, in 2013 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, April (2013), pp. 1932–1940Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. He, J. Chen, F. Jiang, D.K.Y. Yau, G. Xing, Y. Sun, Energy provisioning in wireless rechargeable sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 12(10), 1931–1942 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    I. Katsidimas, S. Nikoletseas, T.P. Raptis, C. Raptopoulos, Efficient algorithms for power maximization in the vector model for wireless energy transfer, in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking (ACM, New York, 2017), pp. 30:1–30:10Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Li, L. Fu, M. Chen, K. Chi, Y.H. Zhu, RF-based charger placement for duty cycle guarantee in battery-free sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Lett. 19(10), 1802–1805 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    X. Lu, D. Niyato, P. Wang, D.I. Kim, Wireless charger networking for mobile devices: fundamentals, standards, and applications. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 126–135 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    X. Lu, P. Wang, D. Niyato, D.I. Kim, Z. Han, Wireless networks with RF energy harvesting: a contemporary survey. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 17(2), 757–789 (2015, Secondquarter)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    X. Lu, P. Wang, D. Niyato, D.I. Kim, Z. Han, Wireless charging technologies: fundamentals, standards, and network applications. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 18(2), 1413–1452 (2016, Second quarter)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Madhja, S. Nikoletseas, T.P. Raptis, Distributed wireless power transfer in sensor networks with multiple mobile chargers. Comput. Netw. 80, 89–108 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Mittleider, B. Griffin, C. Detweiler, Experimental Analysis of a UAV-Based Wireless Power Transfer Localization System (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016), pp. 357–371Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.Y. Naderi, K.R. Chowdhury, S. Basagni, W. Heinzelman, S. De, S. Jana, Experimental study of concurrent data and wireless energy transfer for sensor networks, in 2014 IEEE Global Communications Conference, Dec (2014), pp. 2543–2549Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.Y. Naderi, P. Nintanavongsa, K.R. Chowdhury, RF-MAC: a medium access control protocol for re-chargeable sensor networks powered by wireless energy harvesting. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 13(7), 3926–3937 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.Y. Naderi, K.R. Chowdhury, S. Basagni, Wireless sensor networks with RF energy harvesting: energy models and analysis, in 2015 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), March (2015), pp. 1494–1499Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Nikoletseas, T.P. Raptis, C. Raptopoulos, Low radiation efficient wireless energy transfer in wireless distributed systems, in 2015 IEEE 35th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), June (2015), pp. 196–204Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Nikoletseas, T.P. Raptis, C. Raptopoulos, Interactive wireless charging for energy balance, in 2016 IEEE 36th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), June 2016Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Nikoletseas, Y. Yang, A. Georgiadis (eds.), Wireless Power Transfer Algorithms, Technologies and Applications in Ad Hoc Communication Networks (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Nintanavongsa, M.Y. Naderi, K.R. Chowdhury, Medium access control protocol design for sensors powered by wireless energy transfer, in 2013 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, April (2013), pp. 150–154Google Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    TI BQ501210 Wireless Power Transmitter Manager,
  24. 24.
    B. Tong, Z. Li, G. Wang, W. Zhang, How wireless power charging technology affects sensor network deployment and routing, in 2010 IEEE 30th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), June (2010), pp. 438–447Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Xie, Y. Shi, Y.T. Hou, H.D. Sherali, Making sensor networks immortal: an energy-renewal approach with wireless power transfer. IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 20(6), 1748–1761 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    L. Xie, Y. Shi, Y. T. Hou, A. Lou, Wireless power transfer and applications to sensor networks. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 20(4), 140–145 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Zhang, Z. Qian, F. Kong, J. Wu, S. Lu, P3: joint optimization of charger placement and power allocation for wireless power transfer, in 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), April (2015), pp. 2344–2352Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis Katsidimas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sotiris Nikoletseas
    • 1
  • Theofanis P. Raptis
    • 2
  • Christoforos Raptopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Engineering and InformaticsUniversity of Patras, Computer Technology Institute and Press DiophantusPatraGreece
  2. 2.Institute for Informatics and Telematics, National Research CouncilPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations