Addressing Regulatory Trade Barriers in Mega-Regional Trade Agreements

Chapter

Abstract

Mega-Regional trade agreements are generating a lot of discussion over the future shape and scope of international trade regimes. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), and the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the EU break some new ground with old issues. In particular, regulatory trade barriers have come into focus as an area ripe for cooperation that is predicted to yield great benefits. In this chapter, we examine how these three mega-regionals approach this issue. First, we provide a conceptual framework for understanding regulatory trade barriers, separating them into three core categories: regulatory protectionism, regulatory divergence, and regulatory reform. Next, we examine how regulatory cooperation is envisioned across these mega-regionals, noting, inter alia, where they remain vague on obligations, and where they take innovative steps. Ultimately, the success of regulatory cooperation will depend on how these chapters are implemented in practice. Though they lay a promising groundwork, we remain cautious in predicting how broad an impact they will have.

References

  1. Alemanno A (2014) The transatlantic trade and investment partnership and parliamentary regulatory cooperation. European Parliament Directorate-General for External Policies, Policy Department, Study, 9 Apr 2014. http://ssrn.com/abstract=2423562. Accessed 13 July 2016
  2. Barbee I, Lester S (2014) The TPP and the future of trade agreements. Latin Am J Int Trade Law 2:207–225Google Scholar
  3. Barker T, Workman G (2013) The transatlantic trade and investment partnership: ambitious but achievable, A Stakeholder Survey and Three Scenarios Atlantic Council, Bertelsmann Foundation. http://wwwatlanticcouncilorg/images/publications/ttip_ambitious_achievablepdf. Accessed 24 Aug 2016
  4. Berden KG, Francois J, Thelle M et al (2009) Non-Tariff Measures in EU–US Trade and Investment: An Economic Analysis (Reference: OJ 2007/S 180-219493) Final Report, 11 Dec 2009. Client: European Commission, Directorate-General for Trade. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2009/december/tradoc_145613.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016
  5. Brandt L (2013) A trans-Pacific partnership worth its weight in gold: but what is taking so long? ECIPE Bulletin No 09/2013. http://www.ecipe.org/app/uploads/2014/12/ECIPE_bulletin_TPP_Nov_2013_final.pdf. Accessed 31 Aug 2016
  6. De Gucht K (2013) Transatlantic trade and investment partnership (TTIP): solving the regulatory puzzle. Speech at the Aspen Institute Prague Annual Conference, 10 Oct 2013. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2013/october/tradoc_151822.pdf. Accessed 23 Aug 2016
  7. Deardoff A (2016) Protection. In: Deardoff’s Glossary of International Economics. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~alandear/glossary/p.html. Accessed 13 July 2016
  8. Egan M (2001) Constructing a european market: standards, regulation, and governance. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. European Commission (2016) CETA: summary of the final negotiating results. Feb 2016. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2014/december/tradoc_152982.pdf. Accessed 31 Aug 2016
  10. Government of Canada (2014) Government of Canada tables legislation to improve labelling and classification of workplace chemicals. News Release, 28 Mar 2014. http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?mthd=tp&crtr_page=4&nid=832139&crtr_tp1D=1. Accessed 13 July 2016
  11. Hudec RE (1998) GATT/WTO constraints on National Regulation: Requiem for an “Aim and Effects” test. Int Law 32:619–649Google Scholar
  12. Ignatius D (2012) A free-trade agreement with Europe? The Washington Post, 5 Dec 2012. http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-12-05/opinions/35638623_1_free-trade-free-trade-agreement-trans-atlantic-trade. Accessed 31 Aug 2016
  13. Inside US Trade (2013a) Froman Calls on EU Regulators to Be More Like Their U.S. Counterparts, 3 Oct 2013. http://insidetrade.com/daily-news/froman-calls-eu-regulators-be-more-their-us-counterparts. Accessed 20 Oct 2016
  14. Inside US Trade (2013b) Leaked TTIP Paper Shows EU Seeking Broad Scope in Regulatory Chapter. 19 Dec 2013. http://insidetrade.com/Inside-US-Trade/Inside-U.S.-Trade-12/20/2013/leaked-ttip-paper-shows-eu-seeking-broad-scope-in-regulatory-chapter/menu-id-710.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2016
  15. Inside US Trade (2014a) EU negotiator rejects US push to restructure european legislative process. 3 Oct 2014. http://insidetrade.com/201410032482876/WTO-Daily-News/Daily-News/eu-negotiator-rejects-us-push-to-restructure-european-legislative-process/menu-id-948.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2016
  16. Inside US Trade (2014b) FDA seeks to sever EU regulatory cooperation efforts from TTIP talks. 18 July 2014. http://insidetrade.com/Inside-US-Trade/Inside-U.S.-Trade-07/18/2014/fda-seeks-to-sever-eu-regulatory-cooperation-efforts-from-ttip-talks/menu-id-710.html. Accessed 20 Oct 2016
  17. Lester S (2014) Finding the boundaries of international economic law. J Int Econ Law 17:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lester S, Barbee I (2013) The challenge of cooperation: regulatory trade barriers in the transatlantic trade and investment partnership. J Int Econ Law 16:847–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. OECD (2012) Recommendation of the council on regulatory policy and governance. 22 Mar 2012. http://www.oecd.org/gov/regulatory-policy/2012-recommendation.htm. Accessed 23 Aug 2016.
  20. OECD (2013) The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: Why Does it Matter? http://www.oecd.org/trade/TTIP.pdf. Accessed 24 Aug 2016
  21. Office of the United States Trade Representative (2009) USTR announces agreement with European Union in beef hormones dispute. Press Release, May 2009. https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/press-releases/2009/may/ustr-announces-agreement-european-union-beef-hormones-. Accessed 23 Aug 2016
  22. Office of the United States Trade Representative (2013a) Remarks by U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman on the United States, the European Union, and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. 30 Sept 2013. https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/speeches/transcripts/2013/september/froman-us-eu-ttip. Accessed 14 July 2016
  23. Office of the United States Trade Representative (2013b) UPDATE: What’s Happening in the TPP on 21st-Century Issues. Tradewinds, Official Blog of the United States Trade Representative, 28 March 2013. https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/blog/2013/march/tpp-21st-century-issues. Accessed 14 July 2016
  24. Office of the United States Trade Representative (2015) Trans-Pacific partnership: summary of U.S. Objectives. https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/TPP-Detailed-Summary-of-US-Objectives.pdf. Accessed 23 Oct 2016
  25. Petri PA, Plummer MG (2012) The Trans-Pacific Partnership and Asia-Pacific Integration: Policy Implications. Policy Brief Number PB12-16, Peterson Institute for International Economics, June 2012. http://www.iie.com/publications/pb/pb12-16.pdf. Accessed 31 Aug 2016
  26. Pilling D, Donnan S (2013) Trans-Pacific partnership: Ocean’s twelve. Financial Times, 22 Sept 2013. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/8c253c5c-2056-11e3-b8c6-00144feab7de.html#axzz4Iv9dNStv. Accessed 31 Aug 2016
  27. Robertson C (2014) CETA and TTIP: implications and lessons learned. In: Hamilton DS (ed) The geopolitics of TTIP. Center for Transatlantic Relations, Washington DC, pp 113–136Google Scholar
  28. Shaffer G (2002) Managing U.S.–EU trade relations through mutual recognition and safe harbor agreements. Columb J Eur Law 9:29–77Google Scholar
  29. Sunstein C (2012) The White House vs. Red Tape. Wall Street Journal, Commentary, 30 Apr 2012. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304811304577369934135888006. Accessed 13 July 2016
  30. Takacs T (2013) Regulatory cooperation in transatlantic trade Relations. In: Cremona M, Takacs T (eds) Trade liberalisation and standardisation: new directions in the “low politics” of EU foreign policy. Centre for the law of EU external Relations, Working Paper 2013/6, 75–96Google Scholar
  31. The White House, President Barack Obama (2013a) Remarks by the president in the state of the union address. 12 Feb 2013. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/02/12/remarks-president-state-union-address. Accessed 17 Aug 2016
  32. The White House, President Barack Obama (2013b) Remarks by the president at meeting with the President’s export council. 12 Mar 2013. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/03/12/remarks-president-meeting-presidents-export-council. Accessed 17 Aug 2016
  33. Transatlantic Consumer Dialogue (2001) TACD Briefing Paper on Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRA’s). March 2001. http://test.tacd.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/TACD-TRADE-2001-Briefing-Paper-on-Mutual-Recognition-Agreements.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016
  34. US–EU High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth (2013) Final Report, 11 Feb 2013. https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/02132013%20FINAL%20HLWG%20REPORT.pdf. Accessed 23 Aug 2016
  35. Weidenbaum M (1997) Regulatory process reform, from ford to Clinton. Regulation 20:20–26Google Scholar
  36. World Trade Organization (2013) Members continue to discuss “good practices” for technical regulations. Technical Barriers to Trade: Formal Meeting, 17 and 20 June 2013. http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news13_e/tbt_17jun13_e.htm. Accessed 14 July 2016
  37. World Trade Organization (2014) Healthy food and drink feature, But Good Practice Deal Eludes Standards Committee Technical Barriers to Trade: Formal Meeting, 18 and 19 June 2014. http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news14_e/tbt_18jun14_e.htm#goodpractice. Accessed 14 July 2016
  38. World Trade Organization Statistics Database (2015) Trade Profiles: Canada. Sept 2015. http://stat.wto.org/CountryProfile/WSDBCountryPFView.aspx?Language=E&Country=CA. Accessed 23 Aug 2016

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cato InstituteWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Department of GovernmentGeorgetown UniversityWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations