Botulism is a potentially fatal neuroparalytic syndrome caused by the action of a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum is a diverse group of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria that produces spores. The spores are resistant to approximately 100°C for 5 h. These bacteria are ubiquitous and can be easily isolated from the surface of fruit, vegetables, and fish and are present in soil and in marine sediment around the world .
- 2.Abrutyn E (1998) Botulism. In: Fauci AS, Isselbacher KJ, Braunwald E (eds) Principles of internal medicine, 14th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 904Google Scholar
- 6.Bleck TP (2005) Clostridium botulinum (botulism). In: Mandel GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds) Principles and practice of infectious diseases, 6th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, p 2822Google Scholar
- 8.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2010) Investigational heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) to replace licensed botulinum antitoxin AB and investigational botulinum antitoxin E. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59:299Google Scholar
- 9.FDA news release. FDA approves first botulism antitoxin for use in neutralizing all seven known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm345128.htm. Accessed 25 March 2013
- 11.American Academy of Pediatrics (2015) Botulism and infant botulism (Clostridium botulinum). In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS (eds) Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 30th edn. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, p 294Google Scholar