The Convective–Conductive Theory of Combustion of Condensed Substances

  • Nickolai M. Rubtsov
  • Boris S. Seplyarskii
  • Michail I. Alymov
Chapter
Part of the Heat and Mass Transfer book series (HMT)

Abstract

The convective mechanism of combustion is suggested for the explanation of an abnormally high combustion velocity found in combustion of the systems, which are considered “gasless”, titanium + soot, and also titanium + soot + polystyrene under conditions of one-dimensional filtration of impurity gases. The analysis of the available experimental and theoretical data showed that under conditions of impurity gas emission, a convective combustion mechanism can be provided by the movement of a melted layer of one of reagents under the influence of pressure difference of impurity gases. Physical and mathematical models of convective combustion of “gasless” systems are formulated. It is established that realization of the accelerating combustion mode requires presence of the free volume, which is not occupied with a sample. It is shown that at an initial stage of combustion as well as at the value of free volume exceeding the sample volume, the velocity of the front and the pressure of gas increase following the exponential law. Analytical expressions for calculation of the average velocity of convective combustion are obtained. The examination of the model formulated in the chapter allowed explaining the distinctions in regularities of combustion of “gasless” systems under conditions of counter, cocurrent, and bilateral filtration of impurity gases. It is shown that depending on the organization of combustion process, the pressure difference of impurity gases can both accelerate, and slow down the penetration of the melt into an initial sample, thereby changing a combustion velocity. The estimates of the width of a warming up zone show that impurity gas emission in the warming up zone occurs, first of all, at the expense of a desorption of gases and vapors, which are adsorbed on a surface of the particles of a fine component. By means of the new combustion model, the explanation of an increase in combustion velocity of “gasless” systems observed at thermal vacuum processing and reduction of diameter of initial samples is given. Based on the grounds of the convective–conductive theory of combustion (CCTC) of heterogeneous condensed systems, it is offered to apply a method of pumping out a sample to control the synthesis. The regularities of combustion by the example of Ti–C powders under conditions of artificially created pressure difference along the sample are investigated. It is shown that the removal of impurity gases in a warming up zone of the reaction front provides significant increase in the combustion velocity. It is established that preliminary thermal vacuum processing (TVP) of initial mixes leads to an increase in combustion velocity for samples of bulk density. It is established that the presence of moisture does not practically influence combustion regularities and phase structure of products of granulated Ti + 0.5C samples. It is found out that under conditions of Ar coflow, the influence of humidity on the phase structure of reaction products decreases, and combustion velocity of the powder sample increases. It is shown that the presence of moisture in the Ti + 0.5C powder sample has an impact on the phase structure of combustion products and practically has no influence on the combustion velocity of the sample without a gas flow. It was revealed that the thermovacuum processing of Ti + 0.5C mixtures leads to an increase in combustion velocity (twofold) and sample shrinkage. Mechanical alloying decreases combustion velocity and enlarges (threefold) sample elongation. The results provide a strong argument in favor of conduction–convection combustion theory (CCTC). Thus, the available literature and experimental data confirm the applicability of the convective–conductive mechanism of combustion wave propagation in the fast-burning “gasless” systems containing a fusible reagent.

Keywords

SHS Heat transfer Convective Conductive Penetration Melted layer Impurity gases Darcy’s law Combustion Velocity Thickness Porosity Thermovacuum processing Mechanical activation 

References

  1. 1.
    Merzhanov, A.G., Borovinskaya, I.P.: Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of inorganic compounds. Dokl. Phys. Chem. USSR 204, 429 (1972)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Merzhanov, A.G.: Theory of gasless combustion. Arch. Procesow Spalania 5, 17 (1974)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shkiro, V.M., Nersisyan, G.A., Borovinskaya, I.P., Merzhanov, A.G., Shekhtman, V.I.: Synthesis of carbides of tantalum by SVS method. Powder Metall. N4(196), 14 (1979) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vershinnikov, V.I., Filonenko, A.K.: On the dependence of the velocity if gasless combustion on the pressure. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves (5), 42 (1978) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aldushin, A.P.: On the Mechanism of Combustion of SHS Systems With Gasifiable Oxidizer, Problems of Technological Combustion. Chernogolovka, p. 11 (1981) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shkadinsky, K.G., Strunina, A.G., Firsov, A.N., Demidova, L.D., et.al.: Mathematical modeling of combustion of porous low-gas compositions. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 27(5), 84 (1991) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sherbakov, V.A., Sytchev, A.E., Shteinberg, A.S.: Macrokinetics of degassing in SHS processes. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 22(4), 55 (1986) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nikigosov, V.N., Nersisyan, G.A., Charatyan, S.L., Sherbakov, V.A., et al.: Features of Combustion in the System Titanium-Carbon-Polymer. Preprint AS USSR, Institute of Structural Macrokinetics, Chernogolovka (1990) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Belyaev, A.F., Bobolev, V.K., Korotkov, A.N., et al.: Transition of Combustion of Condensed Systems into Explosion. Moscow, Science (1973) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seplyarskii, B.S.: Ignition of condensed systems at gas filtration. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 27(1), 3 (1991) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vadchenko, S.G., Merzhanov, A.G., Mukasyan A.S., Sytchev A.E., Influence of uniaxial loading on macrokinetics of combustion of gasless systems, Dokl. Phys. Chem. RAS 337(5), 618 (1994)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Vadchenko, S.G., Kostin, S.V., Brauer, G.B.: Features of combustion of Ti − 0.5C and Ti–C mixes of bulk density in cocurrent flow of inert gas. Dokl. Phys. Chem. RAS (1), 30 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kirdyashkin, A.I., Lepakova, O.A., Maximov, Y.M., Pak, A.T.: Structure transitions of the components of powder mix in the wave of gasless combustion. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 25(6), C.67 (1989) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Merzhanov, A.G.: Solid-flame Combustion. Chernogolovka, ISMAN (2000). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Haykin, B.I.: On the theory of combustion processes in heterogeneous condensed media. Combustion Processes in Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Chernogolovka (1975) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aldushin, A.P., Martemjanova, T.M., Merzhanov, A.G., Haykin, B.I.: Self-oscillatory propagation of the combustion front in heterogeneous condensed media. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves (5), C. 613 (1973) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Filonenko, A.K., Bunin, V.A., Vershinnikov, V.I.: The peculiarity of the dependence of the velocity of combustion on diameter for certain gasless compositions. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. B 1(2), 260 (1982)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ponomarev, M.A., Sherbakov, V.A., Shteinberg, A.S.: Features of combustion of thin layers of powder mix titanium—boron. Dokl. Phys. Chem. RAS 340(5), 642 (1995)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Vaganova, N.I.: Convective mode of propagation of reaction zone—a new mechanism of combustion of gasless systems. Dokl. Phys. Chem. RAS 375(4), 496 (2000)MATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Vaganova, N.I.: Convective combustion of gasless systems. Combust Explosion Shock Waves 37(4), 73 (2001) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seplyarskii, B.S.: The nature of abnormal dependence of combustion velocity of gasless systems on diameter. Dokl. Phys. Chem. RAS 396(5), 640 (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smolyakov, V.K.: On the “roughness” of the front of gasless combustion. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 37(3), 33 (2001) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rumanov, E.N.: The Wave of Melting of Porous Substance. Preprint, JICP AS USSR, Chernogolovka (1982) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Borovinskaya, I.P., Merzhanov, A.G., Novikov, N.P., Filonenko, A.K. (1974) Gasless combustion of mixes of powders of transition metals with boron. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 10(1), 4 (1974) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kasatski, N.G., Filatov, V.M., Naiborodenko, Y.S.: SHS in low exothermic and high density systems with aluminum. In: Maximov Y.M. (ed.) Self Propagating High Temperature Synthesis, Tomsk (1991) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aldushin, A.P., Matkowsky, B.J., Schult, D.A.: Downward buoyant filtration combustion. Combust. Flame 107, 151 (1996)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zenin, A.A., Merzhanov, A.G., Nersisyan, G.A.: Structure of thermal wave in certain SHS processes. Dokl. Phys. Chem. USSR 250(4), 880 (1980)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Naiborodenko, Y.S., Kasatski, N.G., Lavrenchuk, G.V. et al.: Influence of thermal treatment in vacuum on the combustion of gasless systems. Proceedings VI National Symposium on Combustion and Explosion, Chernogolovka (1980) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shkiro, V.M., Borovinskaya, I.P., Merzhanov, A.G., Investigation into reaction properties of different types of carbon at synthesis of titanium carbide with SHS method. Powder Metall. (3), 6 (1979) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kamynina, O.K., Rogachev, A.S., Umarov, L.M.: Dynamics of deformation of reacting media at gasless combustion. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 39(5), 69 (2003) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Vadchenko, S.G.: Role of convective heat transfer in the processes of gasless combustion (by the example of Ti + C). Dokl. Phys. Chem. RAS 399(1), 72 (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Filonenko, A.K., Vershinnikov, V.I.: Impurity gas emission in gasless combustion of mixes of transition metals with boron. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. B 3(3), 430 (1984)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zeldovich, Y.B., Barenblatt, G.I., Librovich, V.B., Machviladze, G.M.: Mathematical Theory of Combustion and Explosion. Moscow, Science (1980) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nekrasov, E.A., Maximov, Y.M., Ziatdinov, M.H., Shteinberg, A.S.: Influence of capillary spreading on the propagation of combustion wave in gasless systems. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 14(5), 26 (1978) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Merzhanov, A.G., Borovinskaya, I.P.: Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory compounds. Dokl. Phys. Chem. USSR 204(2), 366 (1972)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shkiro, V.M., Borovinskaya, I.P.: Investigation into features of combustion of mixes of titanium with carbon. In: Combustion Processes in Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Chernogolovka (1975), p. 253Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Munir, Z.A., Anselmi Tamburini, U.: Self-propagating exothermic reactions: the synthesis of high-temperature materials by combustion. Mater. Sci. Rep. 3(7–8), 277–365 (1989)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Prokudina, V.K., Ratnikov, V.I., Maslov, V.M., Borovinskaya, I.P., Merzhanov, A.G.: Technology of titanium carbide. In: Combustion Processes in Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Chernogolovka (1975), p. 136Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Merzhanov, A.G., Mukasyan, A.S., Postnikov, S.V.: Hydraulic effect in processes of gasless combustion. Dokl. Phys. Chem. RAS 343(3), 340 (1995)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Burkina, R.S.: Ignition of a porous body with a flux of radiation. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 31, 5 (1995) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Aldushin, A.P., Seplyarskii, B.S.: Propagation of the wave of exothermic reaction in porous media under conditions of gas blow. Dokl. Phys. Chem. USSR 241(1), 72 (1978)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Vadchenko, S.G., Brauer, G. B., Kostin, S. V.: Regularities of combustion of the mixtures Zr + Al of bulk density in the cocurrent inert gas flow. Chem. Phys. Mesoscopics 10, 135 (2008) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Tsvetkov, G.I., Chernysh, V.I.: Investigation into the ignition of coal powders in the presence of oxygen and natural gas by means of high-speed cinematography. Mendeleev Commun. 22, 47 (2012)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Tarasov, A.G., Tsvetkov, G.I., Chernysh, V.I.: Suppression of the ignition of coal powders in the presence of oxygen and natural gas with small additives of octadecafluorodecahydronaphthalene vapour. Mendeleev Commun. 22, 154 (2012)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Amosov, A.P., Makarenko, A.G., Samboruk, A.R., Seplyarskii, B.S., Samboruk, A.A., Gerasimov, I.O., Orlov, A.V., Yatsenko, V.V.: Effect of batch pelletizing on a course of SHS reactions: an overview. Int. J. Self Propag. High Temp. Synth. 19, 70 (2010)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Tarasov, A.G., Kochetkov, R.A.: Influence of granulation on combustion of 2Ti + C mixtures. Int. J. Self Propag. High Temp. Synth. 22, 65 (2013)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Tarasov, A.G., Kochetkov, R.A., Rubtsov, N.M.: Influence of humidity on the combustion of powdered and granulated Ti + 0.5C mixtures. Mendeleev Commun. 24, 242 (2014)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Avvakumov, E.G. (ed.): Fundamental Bases of Mechanical Activation, Mechanosynthesis and Mechanochemical Technologies (Integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science; issue 19) Publishing house of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk, p. 342 (2009) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Korchagin, M.A., Lyakhov, N.Z.: Self-propagating high temperature synthesis in mechanically activated compositions. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. B. 27, 57 (2008)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Korchagin, M.A., Grigor’eva, T.F., Bokhonov, B.B., Sharafutdinov, M.R., Barinova, A.P., Lyakhov, N.Z.: Solid-state combustion in mechanically activated SHS systems, II. Effect of mechanical activation conditions on process parameters and combustion product composition. Combus. Explosion Shock Waves 39(1), 51 (2003) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rogachev, A.S., Kochetov, N.A., Kurbatkina, V.V., Levashov, E.A., Grinchuk, P.S., Rabinovich, O.S., Sachkova, N.V., Bernard, F.: Microstructural aspects of gasless combustion of mechanically activated mixtures. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 42, 61 (2006) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mukasyan, A.S., White, J.D.E., Kovalev, D.Y., Kochetov, N.A., Ponomarev, V.I., Son, S.F.: Dynamics of phase transformation during thermal explosion in the Al-Ni system: influence of mechanical activation. Phys B-Condens. Matter. 405, 778 (2010)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kovalev, D.Y., Kochetov, N.A., Ponomarev, V.I., Mukasyan, A.S.: Effect of mechanical activation on thermal explosion in Ni-Al mixtures. Int. J. Self Propag. High Temp. Synth. 19, 120 (2010)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kovalev, D.Y., Kochetov N.A., Ponomarev, V.I.: Criteria of critical state of the system Ni-Al at mechanical activation. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 46, 99 (2010) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kochetov, N.A., Vadchenko, S.G.: Mechanically activated SHS of NiAl: effect of Ni morphology and mechanoactivation conditions. Int. J. Self Propag. High Temp. Synth. 21, 55 (2012)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Seplyarskii, B.S., Vadchenko, S.G., Kostin, S.V., Brauer, G.B.: Combustion of bulk density powder mixtures in a coflow of inert gas: 1 the Ni-Al system. Int. J. Self Propag. High Temp. Synth. 17, 112 (2008)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rogachev, A.S.: On the microheterogeneous mechanism of gasless combustion. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 39, 38 (2003) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Haykin, B.I.: On the theory of processes of burning in the heterogeneous condensed environments. In: Combustion Processes in Chemical Technology and Metallurgy. Chernogolovka, p. 227 (1975) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Aldushin, A.P., Haykin, B.I., Merzhanov, A.G.: Some characteristics of the combustion of condensed systems with refractory reaction products. Dokl. Phys. Chem. USSR 204, 1139 (1972)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Merzhanov, A.G., Mukasyan, A.S.: Solid Phase Combustion. Torus Press, Moscow (2007). (in Russian)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vadchenko, S.G., Borovinskaya, I.P., Merzhanov, A.G.: Solid-flame combustion of thin films. Dokl. Phys. Chem. RAS 408, 198 (2006)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vadchenko, S.G.: Gas-free combustion of a model multilayer system (disks combustion without clearance). Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 38, 55 (2002) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kochetov, N.A., Khomenko, N.A., Seplyarskii, B.S., Busurina, M.L.: Combustion of cylindrical Ti + 0.5C compacts: influence of mechanical activation, thermovacuum degassing, and ambient pressure. Int. J. Self Propag. High Temp. Synth. 25(3), 177 (2016)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Vadchenko, S.G.: Gas release during combustion of Ti + 2B films: Influence of mechanical alloying. Int. J. Self Propag. High Temp. Synth. 24(2), 90 (2015)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    V’yushkova, B.V., Levashov, E.A., Ermilov, A.G., Pityulin, A.N., Borovinskaya, I.P., Egorychev, K.N.: Characteristics of the effect of preliminary mechanical activation of a batch on parameters of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis process, structure, and properties of multicomponent cermet SHTM-5. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 30(5), 630 (1994) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Smolyakov, V.K.: Microstructural transformations during gasless combustion. Combust. Explosion Shock Waves 26(3), 301 (1990) (in Russian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nickolai M. Rubtsov
    • 1
  • Boris S. Seplyarskii
    • 1
  • Michail I. Alymov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials ScienceRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations