Cyber-Physical Product-Service Systems



Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS) foster new processes and production methods for reducing “time to market”, waste and failures, as well as improving quality and cost effectiveness. However, changes cannot be restricted to the technological side. An increasing share of services is offered with these systems in order to deliver new customized functions and other benefits. This trend has led to the introduction of Product Service Systems (PSS) as a promising framework describing the integrated development, realization and offering of specific product-service bundles as a solution. The integration of both CPPS and PSS concepts is becoming relevant for industry, because data monitoring, storage and processing allow creating a higher service layer able to deliver production systems with new “intelligent” behaviors and communicating capabilities. In this chapter, we use the term Cyber-physical Product-Service Systems (CPSS) for such an integrated approach. It gives a definition of CPS-based PSS and unveils the state-of-the-art for both concepts with major research issues for their integration. The evolution from products to solutions through servitization is shown, as well as the hardware, software, and service elements of CPSS, requiring an alignment of CPPS and service lifecycle models. Based on industrial use cases, this chapter also deals with challenges for engineering CPS-based PSS in terms of complexity, end user involvement with information exchange among stakeholders and linking views of multiple disciplines (mechanical engineering, information systems, service science etc.). This leads to implications for engineering processes, particularly cross-domain Requirements Engineering and design but also servitized Business Models enabled by CPS.


Cyber-physical system Product-service system Extended product Industrie 4.0 Smart manufacturing 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BIBA—Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik GmbH at the University of BremenBremenGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Production EngineeringUniversity of BremenBremenGermany

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