Static and Fatigue Delamination

  • René AlderliestenEmail author
Part of the Solid Mechanics and Its Applications book series (SMIA, volume 236)


The delamination between metal and composite plies in FMLs is discussed for the two major crack opening modes and combinations thereof. The strain energy release rate is introduced as parameter to describe the static and fatigue behaviour, which is influenced by the interface geometry and fibre volume fraction of the composite plies. The relation between constant and variable amplitude loading is discussed. Furthermore it is explained how plasticity of the metal layers affects the quasi-static delamination fracture toughness. Some observations concerning delamination buckling and residual stress state are discussed.


Metal Layer Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanic Fibre Layer Strain Energy Release Rate Stress Intensity Factor Range 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Alderliesten RC (2007) On crack tunneling and plane-strain delamination in laminates. Int J Fract 148:401–414CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rans CD, Alderliesten RC (2009) Formulating an effective SERR for linear elastic fracture mechanics description of delamination growth. ICCM, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tada H, Paris PC, Irwin GR (2000) The stress analysis of cracks handbook, 3rd edn. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alderliesten RC, Schijve J, van der Zwaag S (2006) Application of the energy release rate approach for delamination growth in GLARE. Eng Fracture Mech 73:697–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Verbruggen MLCE (1986) Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates: ARALL, adhesion problems and environmental effects, Vol. A, Report LR-503. Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marissen R (1988) Fatigue crack growth in ARALL, a hybrid aluminium-aramid composite material, crack growth mechanisms and quantitative predictions of the crack growth rate, PhD dissertation. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roebroeks GHJJ (1991) Towards GLARE—the development of and fatigue insensitive and damage tolerant aircraft material, PhD dissertation. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alderliesten RC, Campoli G, Benedictus R (2009) Modelling cyclic shear deformation of fibre/epoxy layers in fibre metal laminates. Compos Sci Technol 67(11–12):2545–2555Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alderliesten RC (2005) Fatigue crack propagation and delamination growth in GLARE, PhD dissertation. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alderliesten RC (2009) Damage tolerance of bonded aircraft structures. Int J Fatigue 31:1024–1030CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilson G (2013) Fatigue crack growth prediction for generalized fiber metal laminates and hybrid materials, PhD dissertation. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roebroeks GHJJ, Hooijmeijer PA, Kroon EJ, Heinimann MB (2007) The development of central. First international conference on damage tolerance of aircraft structures. Delft, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heinimann M, Kulak M, Bucci R, James M, Wilson G, Brockenbrough J, Zonker H, Sklyut H (2007) Validation of advanced metallic hybrid concept with improved damage tolerance capabilities for next generation lower wing and fuselage applications. In: Lazzeri L, Salvetti A (eds) Proceedings of the 24th ICAF symposium. Naples, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vugt AP van (2012) Strain energy release rate concept validation on delamination behaviour of a CFRP wet lay-up scarf repair joint under cyclic loading, -towards a generic approach for assessment of fatigue in composites, MSc thesis. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khan SU, Alderliesten RC, Benedictus R (2009) Delamination growth in Fibre Metal Laminates under variable amplitude loading. Compos Sci Technol 69:2604–2615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hoeven W van der, Frijns RHW (1990) Static delamination resistance of ARALL—Interim report. Dutch National Laboratory for Aerospace Research NLR, report NLR-CR-90086CGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mangkoesoebroto RH (1987) The effect of fibre volume fraction on the mechanical properties and the fatigue behaviour of ARALL laminates, MSc thesis. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASTM D7905/D7905M-14 (2014) Standard test method for determination of the mode II interlaminar fracture toughness of unidirectional fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Delgrange G, Alderliesten RC, Benedictus R (2009) Delamination growth at interfaces in hybrid materials and structures under various opening modes. In: Bos M (ed) Proceedings of the 25th ICAF Symposium. Rotterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pascoe JA (2012) Delamination of bonded repairs: A damage tolerance approach, Master Thesis. Delft University of Technology, Delft, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Benzeggagh ML, Kenane M (1996) Measurement of mixed-mode delamination fracture toughness of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites with mixed-mode bending apparatus. Compos Sci Technol 56:439–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Greenhalgh ES (2009) Failure Analysis and Fractography of Polymer Composites. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Roebroeks GHJJ (1986) Observation on cyclic delamination in ARALL under fatigue loading, Report LR-496. Delft University of Technology, DelftGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Suiker ASJ, Fleck NA (2004) Crack tunnelling and plane-strain delamination in layered solids. Int J Fract 125:1–32CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Suiker ASJ, Fleck NA (2006) Modelling of fatigue crack tunnelling and delamination in layered composites. Compos Part A 37:1722–1733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Delgrange G (2010) Delamination behaviour of bonded structures and hybrid materials, characterization and implementation in a prediction model, Report B2v-10-01. Delft University of Technology, Delft, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Khan SU, Alderliesten RC, Benedictus R (2011) Delamination in fiber metal laminates (GLARE) during fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude loading. Int J Fatigue 33:1292–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hooijmeijer PA (2002) Doubler run-out fatigue properties, Report B2V-02-16. Delft University of Technology, DelftGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Khan R, Alderliesten RC, Benedictus R (2014) Two-parameter model for delamination growth under mode I fatigue loading (Part B: Model development). Compos A A65:201–210Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Smulders EHM (1988) Fibre fracture mechanism in ARALL laminates with Aramid fibres, Master Thesis. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    de Vries TJ, Vlot A, Hashagen F (1999) Delamination behavior of spliced fiber metal laminates, Part 1—experimental RESULTS. Comp Struct 46(2):131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schijve J (2001) Fatigue of structures and materials. Kluwer Academic PublishersGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rans DC, Atkinson J, Li Ch (2015) On the onset of the asymptotic stable fracture region in the mode II fatigue delamination growth behaviour of composites. J Compos Mater 49(6):685–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Murri GB (2012) Evaluation of delamination growth characterization methods under mode I fatigue loading, ASC 27th technical conference. Arlington, TXGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Charalambous G, Allegri G, Hallett SR (2015) Temperature effects on mixed mode I/II delamination under quasi-static and fatigue loading of a carbon/epoxy composite. Compos A 77:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brunner AJ, Stelzer S, Pinter G, Terrasi GP (2016) Cyclic fatigue delamination of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites: data analysis and design considerations. Int J Fatigue 83:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Khan R, Alderliesten RC, Yao L, Benedictus R (2014) Crack closure and fibre bridging during delamination growth in carbon fibre/epoxy laminates under mode I fatigue loading. Compos A 67:201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yao L, Alderliesten RC, Zhao M, Benedictus R (2014) Bridging effect on mode I fatigue delamination behavior in composite laminates. Compos A 63:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Amaral L, Yao L, Alderliesten RC, Benedictus R (2015) The relation between the strain energy release in fatigue and quasi-static crack growth. Eng Fract Mech 145:86–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rodi R (2010) The residual strength failure sequence in fibre metal Laminates, PhD dissertation. Delft University of Technology, DelftGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Daandels D (2003) Search for DK threshold of GLARE, Preliminary thesis. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alderliesten RC, Rans CD (2008) The meaning of threshold fatigue in fibre metal laminates. Int J Fatigue 31(2):213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vlot A (1987) Buckling of delaminations in Z laminates, Report LR-535. Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bosker OJ (1998) Growth of debonds in GLARE, Part I (no moisture absorption), Report B2V-98-24. Delft University of Technology, DelftGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bosker OJ (2000) Growth of debonds in GLARE, Part II (with moisture absorption), Report B2V-00-08. Delft University of Technology, DelftGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Remmers JJC, de Borst R (2001) Delamination buckling of fibre–metal laminates. Compos Sci Technol 1(15):2207–2213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Remmers JJC, de Borst R (2001) Numerical modelling: delamination buckling. In: Vlot A, Gunnink JW (eds) Fibre metal laminates—an introduction. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zarouchas D, Alderliesten RC (2015) The effect of disbonds on the stability aspects of adhesively bonded aluminium panels during compression loading. Thin-Walled Struct 96:372–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vlot A, Van Ingen JW (1998) Delamination resistance of post-stretched fibre metal laminates. J Compos Mater 32:1784–1805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vlot A, Ingen JW (1994) The influence of post-stretching on the delamination resistance of fibre metal laminates. Delft University of Technology, DelftGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Looijenga KA (1989) Forming limits of ARALL laminates and laminate behaviour at large deformations, Memorandum M-619. Delft University of Technology, Delft (in dutch)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hoeven W van der (1992) Fatigue and residual strength behaviour of ARALL 3 panels with bonded-on doublers. Dutch National Laboratory for Aerospace Research NLR, report 92467 LGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Aerospace EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations