Experimental Methods and Activities in Support of Earthquake Engineering

  • Stathis N. BousiasEmail author
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 2)


The role of experimental methods as an indispensable element supporting earthquake engineering research activities, is presented. Static, dynamic and pseudodynamic (or hybrid simulation) methods have accompanied and, in some cases, triggered the advancements seen during the last decades in earthquake engineering. Structural response, be it for the design of new structures or for the assessment and retrofitting of existing ones, has been thoroughly studied with the aid of experimentation that produced the necessary volume of data to calibrate numerical models and support code provisions. In the following, through examples of experimental studies employing a variety of testing methods it is shown that experimentation is the sine qua non ingredient for the advancement of earthquake engineering research and practice.


Testing methods Structural testing Pseudodynamic testing 



The contribution of all students and research associates who participated in the experimental campaigns in the last 20 years at Structures Laboratory of the University of Patras, is greatly acknowledged. The studies were funded by several agencies through research projects, the majority of which were coordinated by Prof. M. Fardis.


  1. Bosi A, Kotinas I, Lamata Martínez, Bousias S, Chazelas JL, Dietz M, Hasan MR, Madabhusi SPG, Prota A, Blakeborough T, Pegon P (2015) Ch. 4: The SERIES virtual database: exchange data format and local/central databases. In: Taucer F, Fardis M (eds) Earthquake engineering research infrastructures, vol 35. Springer International Publishing, pp 31–48. ISBN 978-3-319-10136-1Google Scholar
  2. Bousias SN, Triantafillou TC, Fardis MN, Spathis L-A, O’Regan B (2004) Fiber-reinforced polymer retrofitting of rectangular RC columns with or without corrosion. ACI Struct J 101(4):512–520Google Scholar
  3. Bousias SN, Spathis L-A, Fardis MN (2006) Concrete or FRP jacketing of columns with lap splices for seismic rehabilitation. J Adv Concr Technol 4(3):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bousias SN, Spathis L-A, Fardis MN (2007a) Seismic retrofitting of columns with lap-spliced smooth bars through frp or concrete jackets. J Earthq Eng 11:653–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bousias SN, Fardis MN, Spathis L-A, Kosmopoulos A (2007b) Pseudodynamic response of torsionally unbalanced 2-story test structure. J Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 36:1065–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bousias S, Kwon O-S, Evangeliou N, Sextos A (2014) Implementation issues in distributed hybrid simulation. In: Proceedings of the 6th world conference of structural control and monitoring, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  7. Hakuno M, Shidawara M, Hara T (1969) Dynamic destructive test of a cantilever beam controlled by an analog-computer. Trans Jpn Soc Civil Eng 1–9Google Scholar
  8. Koutas L, Bousias S, Triantafillou T (2014) Seismic strengthening of masonry-infilled RC frames with TRM: experimental study. ASCE J Compos Constr. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000507 Google Scholar
  9. Kwon O-S, Nakata N, Elnashai A, Spencer B (2005) A framework for multi-site distributed simulation. J Earthq Eng 9(5):741–753Google Scholar
  10. Kwon O, Elnashai AS, Spencer BF (2008) A framework for distributed analytical and hybrid simulations. Struct Eng Mech 30(3):331–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lamata IM, Ioannidis I, Fidas C, Williams M, Pierre Pegon (2015) Ch. 3: The SERIES virtual database: architecture and implementation. In: Taucer F, Fardis M (eds) Earthquake engineering research infrastructures, vol 35. Experimental research in earthquake engineering. Springer International Publishing, pp 31–48. ISBN 978-3-319-10136-1Google Scholar
  12. Makris N, Vassiliou MF (2013) Planar rocking response and stability analysis of an array of free-standing columns capped with a freely supported rigid beam. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 42(3):431–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Makris N, Alexakis C, Kampas G, Strepelias E, Bousias S (2015) SeismoRockBridge project: seismic protection of bridges via rocking of their piers which re-center with gravity—learning from ancient free-standing temples: experimental and theoretical studies. Report to the General Secretariat for Research (in Greek)Google Scholar
  14. Molina FJ, Verzeletti G, Magonette G, Buchet P, Géradin M (1999) Bi-directional pseudodynamic test of a full-size three-storey building. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 28:1541–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nakata N, Dyke S, Zhang J, Mosqueda G, Shao X, Mahmoud H, Head M, Erwin M, Bletzinger M, Marshall GA, Ou G, Song C (2014) Hybrid simulation primer and dictionary. Network for earthquake engineering simulation, NEESGoogle Scholar
  16. Schellenberg AH, Mahin SA, Fenves GL (2009) Advanced implementation of hybrid simulation. PEER Report 2009/104Google Scholar
  17. Severn RT (2011) The development of shaking tables—A historical note. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn  40:195–213. doi:  10.1002/eqe.1015  
  18. Stathas N, Palios X, Fardis M, Bousias S, Skafida S, Digenis S (2015a) Paradigm for resilient concrete infrastructures to extreme natural and man-made threats. Report to the General Secretariat for Research (GSRT)Google Scholar
  19. Stathas N, Skafida S, Bousias S, Fardis M, Digenis S, Palios X (2015b) Hybrid simulation of bridge pier uplifting. Bull Earthq Eng (Special Issue: Large scale and on-site structural testing for seismic performance assessment). doi: 10.1007/s10518-015-9822-2
  20. Strepelias Ε, Palios X, Bousias SN, Fardis MN (2013) Experimental investigation of concrete frames infilled with RC for seismic rehabilitation. ASCE J Struct Eng. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000817 Google Scholar
  21. Takanashi K, Udagawa K, Seki M, Okada T, Tanaka H (1975) Non-linear earthquake response analysis of structures by a computer-actuator on-line system (Part 1 detail of the system). Transcript of the Architectural Institute of JapanGoogle Scholar
  22. Thermou GΕ, Papanikolaou VK, Kappos AJ (2014) Flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete jacketed columns under reversed cyclic loading. Eng Struct 76:270–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Structures Laboratory, Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations