Conclusions: Presidential Elections and the New Structure of Power in Mexico
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At different moments of its history, citizens of Mexico have shown their capacity to organize and demand better policies. Democratization in Mexico is a case in point. Between 1988 and 2012, Mexico’s party politics evolved from a hegemonic to a moderate pluralist party system . The new structure was the consequence of multiple factors. Some of the most important ones were institutional transformations that included several electoral reforms . Nevertheless, this new structure of political opportunities cannot be explained without considering the constant mobilization of the opposition parties, particularly the PRD and the PAN , during previous decades. Just as important was the mobilization of trade unions , social movements , universities, and mass media in developing Mexico’s democratic landscape of moderate protected consultation . The book concludes by reflecting on this political process while also outlining the challenges for Mexican democracy, challenges that derive from issues of violence , party finances, inequality, and economic growth .