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Abstract

Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of male breast. It can be asymptomatic, with high incidence, and symptomatic which is very rare. Most frequently, the changes occur at the time of hormonal changes: infancy, adolescence, and old age. This is thought to be the result of an imbalance of estrogen action relative to androgen action at the breast tissue level. Patients usually have pseudogynecomastia which reflects accumulation of subareolar fat tissue without palpable glandular nodus. Gynecomastia is usually a self-limited condition. In some cases by eliminating the cause, one can resolve gynecomastia. Treatment options for gynecomastia are pharmacological and surgical. Conservative treatment includes antiestrogens, androgens, and aromatase inhibitors. The surgical procedures for gynecomastia include excision, conventional liposuction with or without excision, power-assisted liposuction, and ultrasound-assisted liposuction.

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Vlahovic, A.M., Haxhija, E.Q. (2017). Male Breast Reduction. In: Pediatric and Adolescent Plastic Surgery for the Clinician. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56004-5_6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56004-5_6

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