Curriculum in Interventional Cardiology: Setting Up Professional Standards

  • Jared M. O’Leary
  • Elias V. Haddad
  • Henry S. JenningsIII
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter addresses the current state of affairs involving the setting up of professional standards in interventional cardiology that have evolved over the past 40 years. The inherent evolutionary nature of applicable standards over this time period of rapid growth in the subspecialty is emphasized, beginning with the first coronary interventions of the 1970s, and the ongoing complexity of developing those standards in a period of rapid technological advances in tandem with worldwide expansion of these techniques in patient care delivery is addressed. The authors draw heavily on their collective experiential knowledge base primarily in the context of the current status of the issue at hand in the USA, commenting on analogies in other worldwide care delivery arenas where applicable, and utilize the primary example of professional standards currently expected of both trainees and practitioners of interventional cardiology in the USA in 2017. The chapter addresses expected standards in a temporal framework beginning with eligibility and training requirements for aspirants to become interventional cardiologists and subsequently the standards expected of the practitioner after training, dividing the latter into personal professional standards after training and systems-based professional standards after training in the broader institutional context. Important current professional standards and competency resources are referenced, and several tables are supplied to augment the process for interventional cardiologists, cardiac catheterization laboratory directors, hospital administrators, and privileging and credentialing bodies. The importance of physician self-governance and collective professional responsibility for creating and monitoring such standards is emphasized.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the helpful assistance in topic inclusion and chapter outline creation received from their SCAI colleagues Bonnie H. Weiner, Sunil V. Rao, James C. Blankenship, Kenneth A. Rosenfield, Peter Lanzer, Joseph D. Babb, Daniel M. Kolansky, Mark A. Robbins, Joaquin E. Cigarroa, and Michael A. Kutcher.

References

  1. 1.
    King SB III. The development of interventional cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;31:64B–88B.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bass TA. Certification and competency in interventional cardiology. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5:450–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krause EA. Death of the guilds. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sox HC. Medical professionalism and the parable of the craft guilds. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:809–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lanzer P. Cognitive and decision-making skills in catheter-based cardiovascular interventions. In: Lanzer P, editor. Catheter-based cardiovascular interventions: a knowledge-based approach. 1st ed. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2013. p. 113–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lanzer P, Taatgen N. Procedural knowledge in percutaneous interventions. J Clin Exp Cardiol. 2013;S6:005.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lanzer P, Villringer A. Cognitive approach to teaching percutaneous coronary intervention. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:2433–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    ACGME Program Requirements for Graduate Medical Education in Interventional Cardiology (Internal Medicine). July 1, 2016; September 24, 2016; Available from: https://www.acgme.org/Portals/0/PFAssets/ProgramRequirements/152_interventional_card_int_med_2016_1-YR.pdf. Last accessed date 10/30/2016.
  9. 9.
    Di Mario C, Di Sciascio G, Dubois-Rande JL, Michels R, Mills P. Curriculum and syllabus for interventional cardiology subspecialty training in Europe. EuroIntervention. 2006;2:31–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    King SB III. To be certified or not to be: is that the question? Circ. 2015;132:1780–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hodgson JM, Tommaso CL, Watson RM, Weiner BH. Core curriculum for the training of adult invasive cardiologists: report of the Society for Cardiac Angiography and Interventions Committee on Training Standards. Catheter Cardiovasc Diagn. 1996;37:392–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Halperin JL, Williams ES, Fuster V. COCATS 4: introduction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65:1724–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    King SB III, Babb JD, Bates ER, Crawford MH, Dangas GD, Voeltz MD, White CJ. COCATS 4 Task Force 10: training in cardiac catheterization. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65:1844–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jennings HS, Rao SV, Feldman DN, Kolansky DM, Kutcher MA, Baker NC, Chambers CE, Petit CJ, Cigarroa JE. SCAI core curriculum for adult and pediatric interventional fellowship training in continuous quality assessment and improvement. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;86:422–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Palisaitis D, Love M, Zimmerman R, Radhakrishnan S, Welsh R, Saw J, Renner S, Kells C, Schampaert E. 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiologists guidelines for training and maintenance of competency in adult interventional cardiology. Can J Cardiol. 2011;27:865–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harold JG, Bass TA, Bashore TM, Brindis RG, Brush JE Jr, Burke JA, Dehmer GJ, Deychak YA, Jneid H, Jollis JG, Landzberg JS, Levine GN, JB MC, Messenger JC, Moussa ID, Muhlestein JB, Pomerantz RM, Sanborn TA, Sivaram CA, White CJ, Williams ES. ACCF/AHA/SCAI 2013 update of the clinical competence statement on coronary artery interventional procedures: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/American College of Physicians Task Force on Clinical Competence and Training (Writing Committee to Revise the 2007 Clinical Competence Statement on Cardiac Interventional Procedures). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:357–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kalra A, Bhatt DL, Pinto DS, Kirtane AJ, Kapadia SR, Makkar RR, Rihal CS, Kleiman NS, Cutlip DE. Accreditation and funding for a 24-month advanced interventional cardiology fellowship: a call-to-action for optimal training of the next generation of interventionalists. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;88:1010–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nasca TJ, Philibert I, Brigham T, Flynn TC. The next GME accreditation system: rationale and benefits. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1051–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lanzer P, Prechelt L. Expanding the base for teaching of percutaneous coronary interventions: the explicit approach. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;77:372–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lanzer P, Prechelt L. On acquiring decision making skills for endovascular interventions. EuroIntervention. 2008;4:303–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brilakis ES, et al. A percutaneous treatment algorithm for crossing coronary chronic total occlusions. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5:367–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lanzer P, Prechelt L. Spelling out risk reduction strategies for intracoronary stenting. EuroIntervention. 2008;3:622–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuvin JT, Williams ES. Defining, achieving, and maintaining competence in cardiovascular training and practice. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;68:1342–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blankenship JC, Rosenfield K, Jennings HS. Core curriculum: privileging and credentialing for interventional cardiology procedures. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;86:665–3.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Makary MA, Wick E, Freischlag JA. PPE, OPPE, FPPE: complying with the new alphabet soup of credentialing. Arch Surg. 2011;146:642–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wise, RA. OPPE and FPPE: tools to help make privileging decisions. The Joint Commission website. http://www.jointcommission.org/jc_physician_blog/oppe_fppe_tools_privileging_decisions/ (Accessed on July 14, 2014).
  27. 27.
    Steele JR, Hovesepian DM, Schomer DF. The Joint Commission practice performance evaluation: a primer for radiologists. J Am Coll Radiol. 2010;7:425–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Windecker S, Kohl P, Alfonso F, Collet J-P, Cremer J, Falk V, Filippatos G, Hamm CW, Head SJ, Jüni P, Kappetein A-P, Kastrati A, Knuuti J, Landmesser U, Laufer G, Neumann F-J, Richter DJ, Schauerte P, Uva MS, Stefanini GG, Taggart DP, Torracca L, Valgimigli M, Wijns W, Witkowski A. 2014 ESC/EACTS guidelines on myocardial revascularization. EuroIntervention. 2015;10:1024–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harrington RA, Califf RM. There is a role for industry-sponsored education in cardiology. Circulation. 2010;121:2221–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Naidu SS, Aronow HD, Box LC, Duffy PL, Kolansky DM, Kupfer JM, Latif F, Mulukutla SR, Rao SV, Swaminathan RV, Blankenship JC. SCAI expert consensus statement: 2016 best practices in the cardiac catheterization laboratory: (endorsed by the Cardiological Society of India, and Sociedad Latino Americana de Cardiologia Intervencionista; affirmation of value by the Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology–Association canadienne de cardiologie d’intervention). Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;88:407–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Baron RJ, Krumholz HM, Jessup M, Brosseau JL. Board certification in internal medicine and cardiology: historical success and future challenges. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2015;25:305–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ting HH, Bates ER, Beliveau ME, Drozda JP Jr, Harold JG, Krumholz HM, Nishimura RA, Oetgen WJ, Sibley JB, Tcheng JE. Update on the American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Program: a report of the American College of Cardiology’s Educational Quality Review Board. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:92–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tierstein PS, Topol EJ. The role of maintenance of certification programs in governance and professionalism. J Am Med Assoc. 2015;313:1809–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fiorilli PN, Minges KE, Herrin J, Messenger JC, Ting HH, Nallamothu BK, Lipner RS, Hess BJ, Holmboe ES, Brennan JJ, Curtis JP. Association of physician certification in interventional cardiology with in-hospital outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention. Circ. 2015;132:1816–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nora LM, Wynia MK, Granatir T. Of the profession, by the profession, and for the patients, families, and communities: ABMS board certification and medicine’s self-regulation. J Am Med Assoc. 2015;313:1805–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    O’Gara PT, Oetgen WJ. Follow-up on ABIM maintenance of certification. J Am Coll Card. 2015;65:207–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chazal RA. ABIM maintenance of certification: current status. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;67:2547–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Williams ES, Halperin JL, Arrighi JA, Awtry EH, Bates ER, Costa S, Freeman R, Mcpherson JA, Mendes LA, Ryan T, Sivaram CA, Weitz HH. 2016 ACC lifelong learning competencies for general cardiologists: a report of the ACC Competency Management Committee. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;22:2656–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maddox TM, Rumsfeld JS. Adverse clinical event peer review must evolve to be relevant to quality improvement. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2014;7:807–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vyas D, Hozain A. Clinical peer review in the United States: history, legal development and subsequent abuse. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:6357–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Heupler FA, Chambers CE, Dear WE, Angello DA, Heisler M. Guidelines for internal peer review in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Catheter Cardiovasc Diagn. 1997;40:21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Evans R, Elwyn G, Edwards A. Review of instruments for peer assessment of physicians. Br Med J. 2004;328:1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Freedman S. Peer review: best practices for enhancing quality. Pat Safety Qual Healthcare. 2007;4:12–4.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Moussa I, Hermann A, Messenger JC, Dehmer GJ, Weaver WD, Rumsfeld JS, Masoudi FA. The NCDR CathPCI Registry: a US national perspective on care and outcomes for percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart. 2013;99:297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dehmer GJ, Jennings J, Madden RA, Malenka DJ, Masoudi FA, McKay CR, Ness DL, Rao SV, Resnic FS, Ring ME, Rumsfeld JS, Shelton ME, Simanowith MC, Slattery LE, Weintraub WS, Lovett A, Normand S. The National Cardiovascular Data Registry Voluntary Public Reporting Program; an interm report from the NCDR Public Reporting Advisory Group. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67:205–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cavender MA, Joynt KE, Parzynski CS, Resnic FS, Rumsfeld JS, Moscucci M, Masoudi FA, Curtis JP, Peterson ED, Gurm HS. State mandated public reporting and outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention in the United States. Am J Cardiol. 2015;115:1494–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Klein LW, Harjai KJ, Resnic F, Weintraub WS, Anderson HV, Yeh RW, Feldman DN, Gigliotti OS, Rosenfield K, Duffy P. 2016 revision of the SCAI position statement on public reporting. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;89:269–79.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ccd.2681.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Davies RA. Overview of 'APPROACH' —the Alberta Provincial Program for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease. Can J Cardiol. 2000;16:1222–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brindis R, Spertus JA. President's page: employing shared decision-making models to improve care and patient value: a cardiovascular professional initiative. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:2046–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sepucha KR, Scholl I. Measuring shared decision making: a review of constructs, measures, and opportunities for cardiovascular care. Circ Cardiovasc Qual. 2014;7:620–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sepucha KR, et al. Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids: key constructs and measurement instruments. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013;13 Suppl 2:S12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Coylewright M, Dick S, Zolek B, Askelin J, Hawkin E, Branda M, Inselman JW, Zeballos-Palcios C, Shah ND, Hess EP, LeBlanc A, Montori V, Ting HH. PCI choice decision aid for stable coronary artery disease: a randomized trial. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2016;9:767–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gainer RA, Curran J, Buth KJ, David JG, Legare J, Hirsch GM, et al. Med Decis Mak. 2016;37(5):600–10.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0272989X16675338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kelly ML. Risk perception, bias and the role of patient–doctor relationship in decision making about cerebral aneurysm surgery. AMA J Ethics. 2015;17:6–12.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sanders GD, Neumann PJ, Basu A, Brock DW, Feeny D, Krahn M, Kuntz K, Meltzer DO, Owens DK, Prosser LA, Salomon JA, Sculpher MJ, Trikalinos TA, Russell LB, Siegel JE, Ganiats TG. Recommendations for conduct, methodological practices, and reporting of cost-effectiveness in health and medicine: second panel on cost-effectiveness in health and medicine. J Am Med Assoc. 2016;316:1093–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Margolis JD. Professionalism, fiduciary duty, and health-related business leadership. J Am Med Assoc. 2015;313:1819–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Doerr HL. Economic credentialing. Am J Med Qual. 1992;7:91–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jessurun GAJ, Heijer PD, Tio RA, Peels HOJ, Crijns HGJM. Economical and ethical issues of interventional cardiology in the Netherlands: is it time for managed care? J Interv Cardiol. 1997;10:73–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Roberts MS. The next chapter in cost-effectiveness analysis. J Am Med Assoc. 2016;316:1049–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mason DJ. Choosing wisely: changing clinicians, patients, or policies. J Am Med Assoc. 2015;313:657–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Romani M, Ashkar K. Burnout among physicians. Libyan J Med. 2013;9:23556.  https://doi.org/10.3402/ljm.v9.23556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rosenstein AH. Physician stress and burnout: what can we do? Physician Exec. 2012;38:22–26, 28, 30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Spickard A Jr, Gabbe SG, Christensen JF. Mid-career burnout in generalist and specialist physicians. J Am Med Assoc. 2002;288:1447–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Swensen S, Kabcenell A, Shanafelt T. Physician–organization collaboration reduces physician burnout and promotes engagement: the Mayo Clinic experience. J Healthc Manag. 2016;61:105–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ariely D, Lanier WL. Disturbing trends in physician burnout and satisfaction with work–life balance. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015;90:1593–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Webb LE, Dmochowski R, Moore IN, Pichert JW, Catron TF, Troyer M, Martinez W, Cooper WO, Hickson GB. Using coworker observations to promote accountability for disrespectful and unsafe behaviors by physicians and advanced practice professionals. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2016;42:149–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Blankenship JC. President’s page: facing disasters. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;87:639–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Brotherton S, Kao A, Crigger BJ. Professing the values of medicine: the modernized AMA code of medical ethics. J Am Med Assoc. 2016;316:1041–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Snyder L. American College of Physicians ethics manual: sixth edition. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:73–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    ABIM Foundation, ACP–ASIM Foundation, European Federation of Internal Medicine. Medical professionalism in the new millennium: a physician charter. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:243–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Blankenship JC. President’s page: professionalism in interventional cardiology and the new value-based payment system. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;86:961–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cameron AA, Laskey WK, Sheldon WC, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) Ad Hoc Task Force on Ethics in Invasive and Interventional Cardiology. Ethical issues for invasive cardiologists: Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2004;61:157–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bashore TM, Balter S, Barac A, Byrne JG, Cavendish JJ, Chambers CE, Hermiller JB, Kinlay S, Landzberg JS, Laskey WK, McKay CR, Miller JM, Moliterno DJ, Moore JW, Oliver-McNeil SM, Popma JJ, Tommaso CL, Members ATF. 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation/Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions expert consensus document on cardiac catheterization laboratory standards update: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Expert Consensus documents developed in collaboration with the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and Society for Vascular Medicine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:2221–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Banning AP, Baumbach A, Blackman D, Curzen N, Devadathan S, Fraser D, Ludman P, Norell N, Muir D, Nolan J, Redwood S. Percutaneous coronary intervention in the UK: recommendations for good practice 2015. Heart. 2015;101:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zoghbi WA. President’s page: working toward the triple aim in cardiovascular health care. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:1655–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Klein LW, Uretsky BF, Chambers C, Anderson HV, Hillegass WB, Singh M, Ho KK, Rao SV, Reilly J, Weiner BH, Kern M, Bailey S. Quality assessment and improvement in interventional cardiology: a position statement of the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, part I: standards for quality assessment and improvement in interventional cardiology. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;78:927–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Klein LW, Ho KK, Singh M, Anderson HV, Hillegass WB, Uretsky BF, Chambers C, Rao SV, Reilly J, Weiner BH, Kern M, Bailey S. Quality assessment and improvement in interventional cardiology: a position statement of the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, part II: public reporting and risk adjustment. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;78:493–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Orlander JD, Barber TW, Fincke BJ. The morbidity and mortality conference: the delicate nature of learning from error. Acad Med. 2002;77:1001–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Morath JM, Turnbull JE. To do no harm: ensuring patient safety in health care organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2005.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kuhn T, Basch P, Barr M, Yackel Y. Clinical documentation in the 21st century: executive summary of a policy position paper from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162:301–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sanborn TA, Tcheng JE, Anderson HV, Chambers CE, Cheatham SL, DeCaro MV, Durack JC, Everett AD, Gordon JB, Hammond WE, Hijazi ZM, Kashyap VS, Knudtson M, Landzberg MJ, Martinez-Rios MA, Riggs LA, Sim KH, Slotwiner DJ, Solomon H, Szeto WY, Weiner BH, Weintraub WS, Windle JR. ACC/AHA/SCAI 2014 health policy statement on structured reporting for the cardiac catheterization laboratory: a report of the American College of Cardiology Clinical Quality Committee. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:2591–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Levine GN, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI guideline for percutaneous coronary intervention. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:e44–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kolh P, Wijns W, Danchin N, Di Mario C, Falk V, Folliguet T, Garg S, Huber K, James S, Knuuti J, Lopez-Sendon J, Marco J, Menicanti L, Ostojic M, Piepoli MF, Pirlet C, Pomar JL, Reifart N, Ribichini FL, Schalij MJ, Sergeant P, Serruys PW, Silber S, Sousa Uva M, Taggart D. Guidelines on myocardial revascularization: Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS), European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI). Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;38 Suppl:S1–S52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcts.2010.08.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    King SB III, et al. Angioplasty or surgery for multivessel coronary artery disease: comparison of eligible registry and randomized patients in the EAST trial and influence of treatment selection on outcomes. Emory Angioplasty Versus Surgery Trial Investigators. Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:1453–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Serruys PW, et al. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary-artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:961–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sanchez CE, Badhwar V, Dota A, Schindler J, Chu D, Smith AJ, Lee JS, Khandhar S, Toma C, Marroquin OC, Schmidhofer M, Bhama J, Wei L, Scolieri S, Esper S, Lee A, Mulukutla SR. Practical implementation of the coronary revascularization heart team. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2013;6:598–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bass TA. President’s page: SCAI: home of the cath lab team. Catheter Cardiov Interv. 2014;83:1023–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Davis J. The Society of Invasive Cardiovascular Professionals new 2015 educational guidelines for cardiovascular technology personnel in the cardiovascular catheterization laboratory. Cath Lab Digest. 2015;23(5)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kripilani S, LeFevre F, Phillips CO, Williams MV, Basavia P, Baker DW. Deficits in communication and information transfer between hospital-based and primary care physicians: implications for patient safety and continuity of care. J Am Med Assoc. 2007;297:831–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wasfy JH, Yeh RW. Future of the PCI readmission metric. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2016;9:186–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Carson MB, Scholtens DM, Frailey CN, Gravenor SJ, Powell ES, Wang AY, Kricke GS, Ahmad FS, Mutharasan RK, Soulakis ND. Characterizing teamwork in cardiovascular care outcomes: a network analytics approach. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2016;9:670–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jared M. O’Leary
    • 1
  • Elias V. Haddad
    • 1
  • Henry S. JenningsIII
    • 1
  1. 1.Interventional Cardiology Section, Vanderbilt Heart & Vascular Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations