Chronic Total Occlusions

  • Marouane BoukhrisEmail author
  • Alfredo R. Galassi


Coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are common findings in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Despite promising results reported in observational studies, the impact of CTO revascularization on prognosis is still not well established in the absence of randomized trials. Consequently, both European and American guidelines have assigned class IIa (level of evidence B) recommendations for CTO percutaneous coronary interventions. Expertise among interventionalists has markedly increased in both antegrade and retrograde techniques, corresponding to high success rates despite the increased difficulty of attempted CTO lesions.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiology, Abderrahmen Mami HospitalFaculty of Medicine of Tunis, Univesity of Tunis El ManarArianaTunisia
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly

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