Meta-analytic Thinking and Other Spin-Offs of Meta-analysis

Shift from P-Values to Effect Sizes of any Scientific Issue
  • Ton J. Cleophas
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman


Terms like meta-learning and meta-analytic thinking are obviously spin-offs of meta-analysis methodology. At the same time meta-analysis has provided us with the ugliest graph in scientific research, the forest plot, otherwise called the blobbogram. Nonetheless, forest plots are currently increasingly applied for picturing patient characteristics in clinical studies, for propensity score assessments, for sensitivity assessments of the primary analysis in almost any clinical study. Pooled effect size assessments of important not only of the main outcomes of studies, but also of any other important or unimportant scientific issues. Another spin-off is, that the inclusion of a meta-analysis of the studies in the past are, currently, increasingly observed in novel interventional trials. This chapter will give examples of all of these spin-offs.


Propensity Score Forest Plot Pool Odds Ratio Item Response Modeling Pool Effect Size 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Meta-analysis methodology is reviewed in the Chaps.  1 and  2 of the current edition.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ton J. Cleophas
    • 1
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineAlbert Schweitzer HospitalSliedrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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