Pro-oxidant Challenges and Antioxidant Adaptation of Pleuragramma antarctica in Platelet Ice

  • Maura Benedetti
  • Maria Elisa Giuliani
  • Francesco RegoliEmail author
Part of the Advances in Polar Ecology book series (AVPE, volume 3)


Antarctic organisms developed specific adaptation mechanisms making these species able to survive to extreme environment conditions. Among fishes, Pleuragramma antarctica presents a specific peculiarity due to the occurrence of eggs with fully developed yolk-sac embryos below the platelet ice layer. This ice is an environment with strong pro-oxidant characteristics at the beginning of austral spring, when the rapid growth of algal ice communities, the massive release of nutrients and the photoactivation of dissolved organic carbon and nitrates represent an important sources for oxyradical formation. Such processes are concentrated in a short period of a few weeks, which overlaps with the final stage of development of P. antarctica embryos in platelet ice. For this reason, embryonated eggs of P. antarctica, before hatching, should possess adequate protection toward the marked and sudden increase of reactive oxygen species exposure. In this respect, molecular and functional characteristics of antioxidants in P. antarctica provide new insights on the modulation of the antioxidant defence pathway in response to varied environmental pro-oxidant challenge. To this aim, the main antioxidant components have been characterized in P. antarctica sampled from platelet ice in its nursery area in the Ross Sea, and data on nucleotide and protein sequences have been integrated with the analysis of regulation at transcriptional and functional levels. The results revealed a marked temporal increase of antioxidants in embryos of P. antarctica as adaptive counteracting response to oxidative conditions of platelet ice.


Antioxidant defence Antarctic fishes Catalase Glutathione peroxidase 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maura Benedetti
    • 1
  • Maria Elisa Giuliani
    • 1
  • Francesco Regoli
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversità Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly

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