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Stem Cell Therapy for Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Umang G. Thakkar
  • Aruna V. Vanikar
  • Hargovind L. Trivedi
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cells in Clinical Applications book series (SCCA)

Abstract

Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic, multifactorial autoimmune disease involving progressive destruction of pancreatic β cells, ultimately resulting in loss of insulin production/secretion, causing hyperglycemia. Replacement of damaged β cells by cell therapy can mitigate this condition and reestablish normal metabolic control. Existing gold standard treatment for T1DM is islet transplantation. However it offers limited rescue from exogenous insulin requirement due to paucity of islets required to reinstate normal blood glucose, immune rejection, and most importantly limited availability of donors. These questions have opened up new horizons for research and management, such as stem cells (SCs), cellular reprogramming, and β-cell regeneration. Results from ongoing clinical trials employing cell therapy designed to arrest T1DM will probably take up the center stage of management of DM in the coming years. SCs are cells with potential to differentiate into many types of cells/progeny and hold promise for providing abundant source of cells for treating T1DM. Surrogate β cells from non-β cells will prove efficient alternative sources, such as adult-/embryonic-/umbilical cord-derived cells. These will have intricate makeup of normal β cells like insulin secretion, which can be utilized in stimulation of β-cell renewal by replication/neogenesis. These cells have revealed increase in endogenous insulin production to some extent alleviating autoimmune demolition of β cells. The present review summarizes the historic as well as current knowledge of T1DM and describes development of cell therapeutics as a promising approach without undesirable side effects.

Keywords

Type-1 diabetes mellitus Pancreas Insulin Stem cell therapy Embryonic stem cells Adult stem cells Insulin-secreting cells Regenerative medicine 

Abbreviations

AD-MSC

Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell

BM

Bone marrow

DC

Dendritic cells

DCCTR

Diabetes control and complication trial research

DCDM

Diagnostic criteria for DM

DM

Diabetes mellitus

ESC

Embryonic stem cell

EV

Extracellular vesicles

HbA1c

Glycosylated hemoglobin

HSC

Hematopoietic stem cell

IPC

Insulin-producing cell

iPSC

Induced pluripotent stem cells

IPSC

Insulin-producing stem cell

ISC

Insulin-secreting cell

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cell

MODY

Maturity onset diabetes of the young

SCT

Stem cell therapy

T1DM

Type-1 diabetes mellitus

T2DM

Type-2 diabetes mellitus

UCB

Umbilical cord blood

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Acknowledgment

Author acknowledges the immense help received from the scholars whose articles are cited and included in the references of this review chapter. The authors are also grateful to the author/editors/publishers of all those articles, journals, and books from where the literature for this chapter has been reviewed and discussed.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umang G. Thakkar
    • 1
  • Aruna V. Vanikar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hargovind L. Trivedi
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Therapy and Department of PediatricsG.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases & Research Centre (IKDRC)- Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (ITS)AhmedabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Transfusion Services and ImmunohematologyG.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases & Research Centre (IKDRC)- Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (ITS)GujaratIndia
  3. 3.Department of Nephrology and Transplantation MedicineG.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases & Research Centre (IKDRC)- Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (ITS)GujaratIndia

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