Advertisement

Intervention on Self-Concept: A Path to Promoting Subjective Wellbeing

  • Cristina da Silva HasseEmail author
  • Ângela Carina Paradiso
Chapter
Part of the Children’s Well-Being: Indicators and Research book series (CHIR, volume 16)

Abstract

This chapter presents an intervention with children aiming to promote wellbeing through reflection on self-concept and purpose in life. A total of 100 participants aged 10–14 years old from two public schools in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) participated in this study. The intervention was carried out based on different activities that had specific objectives, such as promoting self-concept in the physical, social, family and academic dimensions and stimulating reflection on purpose in life. In order to evaluate the intervention, qualitative and quantitative strategies were used, such as field diary, notes taken during the activities and an assessment questionnaire, answered at three time points: before the intervention (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test) and 30 days after the intervention (follow-up). The qualitative results show that the participants had difficulty recognizing and reflecting on their physical characteristics. Nevertheless, the objectives of promoting self-concept in their social, family and academic dimensions, and stimulating reflection on purpose in life were achieved. From a quantitative point of view, the difference in the averages of the items that assessed self-concept at the three time points was not significant. Difference in differences regression pointed out that the average of self-concept of the School 1 participants is statistically higher than those of School 2. The impact of the intervention, although not significant, indicated increased average of self-concept after the intervention. This suggests that intervening on specific dimensions of self-concept may be good action strategy on the topic.

Keywords

Intervention Self-concept Purpose in life 

References

  1. Arpini, D. M., & Quintana, A. M. (2003). Identidade, família e relações sociais em adolescentes de grupos populares. Revista Estudos de Psicologia, 20(1), 27–36.Google Scholar
  2. Bandeira, C. M., Natividade, J. C., & Giacomoni, C. H. (2015). As relações de otimismo e bem-estar subjetivo entre pais e filhos. Psico-USF, 20(2), 249–257. doi: 10.1590/1413-82712015200206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bardin, L. (1977). Análise de Conteúdo. Edição revista e ampliada. Lisbon, Portugal: Edições 70.Google Scholar
  4. Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1–44. doi: 10.1111/1529-1006.01431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2009). The pursuit of meaningfulness in life. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 608–618). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Birkeland, M. S., Melkevik, O., Holsen, I., & Wold, B. (2012). Trajectories of global self-esteem development during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 43–54. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boden, J. M., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2008). Does adolescent self-esteem predict later life outcomes? A test of the causal role of self-esteem. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 319–339. doi: 10.1017/S0954579408000151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borges, A., Matos, M. G., & Diniz, J. A. (2013). Body image and subjective well-being in portuguese adolescents. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16, 1–12. doi: 10.1017/sjp.2013.24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bragado, C., Hernández-Lloreda, M. J., Sanchez-Bernardos, M. L., & Urbano, S. (2008). Autoconcepto físico, ansiedad, depresión y autoestima en niños con cáncer y niños sanos sin historia de cáncer. Psicothema, 20(3), 413–419.Google Scholar
  10. Bronk, K. C., Hill, P. L., Lapsley, D. K., Talib, T. L., & Finch, H. (2009). Purpose, hope, and life satisfaction in three age groups. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 500–510. doi: 10.1080/17439760903271439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brunborg, G. S. (2008). Core self-evaluations: A predictor variable for job stress. European Psychologist, 13, 96–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang, L., McBride-Chang, C., Stewart, S. M., & Au, E. (2003). Life satisfaction, self-concept, and family relations in Chinese adolescents and children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(2), 182–189. doi: 10.1080/01650250244000182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, S., Boucher, H. C., & Tapias, M. P. (2006). The relational self revealed: Integrative conceptualization and implications for interpersonal life. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 151–179. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng, H., & Furnham, J. (2003). Personality, self-esteem, and demographic predictions of happiness and depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(6), 921–942. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00078-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chui, W. H., & Wong, M. Y. H. (2016). Gender differences in happiness and life satisfaction among adolescents in Hong Kong: Relationships and self-concept. Social Indicators Research, 125, 1035–1051. doi: 10.1007/s11205-015-0867-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cia, F., & Barham, E. J. (2008). Estabelecendo relação entre autoconceito e desempenho acadêmico de crianças escolares. Psico, 39(1), 21–27.Google Scholar
  17. Crede, J., Wirthwein, L., McElvany, N., & Steinmayr, R. (2015). Adolescents’ academic achievement and life satisfaction: The role of parents’ education. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(52), 1–8. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00052.Google Scholar
  18. Dunstan, L., & Nieuwoudt, J. (1994). The relationship between indexes of childhood friendship and biographical, personality and behavioral variables. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155(3), 303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Faria, L., & Fontaine, A. M. (1990). Avaliação do conceito de si próprio de adolescentes: adaptação do SDQ I de Marsh à população portuguesa. Cadernos de Consulta Psicológica, 6, 97–105.Google Scholar
  20. Ferreira, B. W. (2003a). Adolescência: caracterização e etapas do desenvolvimento. In B. W. Ferreira, B. E. Ries, B. S. Santos, E. W. Rodrigues, J. La Rosa, & L. Zanella (Orgs.), Psicologia e educação: Desenvolvimento humano - adolescência e vida adulta (pp. 15–20). Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul: EDIPUCRS.Google Scholar
  21. Ferreira, B. W. (2003b). Abordagens teóricas sobre a adolescência: Arminda Aberastury e Maurício Knobel. In B. W. Ferreira, B. E. Ries, B. S. Santos, E. W. Rodrigues, J. La Rosa, & L. Zanella (Orgs.), Psicologia e educação: desenvolvimento humano - adolescência e vida adulta (pp. 21–34). Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul: EDIPUCRS.Google Scholar
  22. Frizzo, K. R. (2008). Diário de campo. In E. Saforcada & J. C. Sarriera (Eds.), Enfoques conceptuales y técnicos en psicología comunitaria (pp. 165–172). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Paidós.Google Scholar
  23. Garaigordobil, M., Pérez, J. I., & Mozaz, M. (2008). Self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms. Psicothema, 20(1), 114–123.Google Scholar
  24. Gonçalves, C. S., Wolff, J. R., & Almeida, W. C. (1988). Lições de psicodrama: introdução ao pensamento de J. L. Moreno. São Paulo, Brazil: Ágora.Google Scholar
  25. González-Pienda, J. A., Núñez, J. C., González, S., Álvarez, L., Roces, C., García, M., ... Valle, E. (2000). Autoconcepto, proceso de atribución causal y metas académicas en niños con y sin dificultaes de aprendizaje. Psicothema, 12(4), 548–556.Google Scholar
  26. Gray, R. S., Chamratrithirong, A., Pattaravanich, U., & Prasartkul, P. (2013). Happiness among adolescents students in Thailand: Family and non-family factors. Social Indicators Research, 110(2), 703–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guay, F., Marsh, H. W., & Boivin, M. (2003). Academic self-concept and academic achievement: Developmental perspectives on their causal ordering. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 124–136. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haraldstad, K., Christophersen, K. A., Eide, H., Nativg, G. K., & Helseth, S. (2011). Predictors of health-related quality of life in a sample of children and adolescents: A school survey. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20(21–22), 3048–3056. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03693.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jiang, X., Kosher, H., Ben-Arieh, A., & Huebner, E. S. (2014). Children’s rights, school psychology, and well-being assessments. Social Indicators Research, 117, 179–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Leflot, G., Onghena, P., & Colpin, H. (2010). Teacher–child interactions: Relations with children’s self-concept in second grade. Infant and Child Development, 19, 385–405. doi: 10.1002/icd.672.Google Scholar
  31. Lv, B., Zhou, H., Guo, X., Liu, C., Liu, Z., & Luo, L. (2016). The relationship between academic achievement and the emotional well-being of elementary school children in China: The moderating role of parent-school communication. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(948), 1–9. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00948.Google Scholar
  32. Martins, D. F., Nunes, M. F. O., & Noronha, A. P. P. (2008). Satisfação com a imagem corporal e autoconceito em adolescentes. Psicologia: Teoria e Prática, 10(2), 94–105.Google Scholar
  33. McKnight, P. E., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Purpose in life as a system that creates and sustains health and well-being: an integrative, testable theory. Review of General Psychology, 13(3), 242–251. doi: 10.1037/a0017152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moksnes, U. K., & Espnes, G. A. (2013). Self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents – gender and age as potential moderators. Quality of Life Research, 22, 2921–2928. doi: 10.1007/s11136-013-0427-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nevin, S., Carr, A., Shevlin, M., Dooley, B., & Breaden, C. (2005). Factors related to well-being in Irish adolescents. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 26(3–4), 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nunes, C., Hernando, A., Lemos, I., Ayala-Nunes, L., Oliva, C. R., & Coronado, C. M. (2016). Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents: A comparative study between natives and immigrants. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 21(4), 1137–1144. doi: 10.1590/1413-81232015214.09992015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. O’Mara, A. J., Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., & Debus, R. L. (2006). Do self-concept interventions make a difference? A synergistic blend of construct validation and meta-analysis. Educational Psychologist, 41(3), 181–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Orth, U., Robins, R. W., & Widaman, K. F. (2012). Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(6), 1271–1288. doi: 10.1037/a0025558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Peixoto, F. (2004). Qualidade das relações familiares, auto-estima, autoconceito e rendimento acadêmico. Análise Psicológica, 1(XXII), 235–244.Google Scholar
  40. Rogers, M. (2012). They are there for you: The importance of neighborhoods friends to children well-being. Children’s Indicators Research, 5(3), 483–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sarriera, J. C., Casas, F., Bedin, L. M., Abs, D., Santos, B. R., Borges, F. C., Malo, S., González, M. (2015). Propriedades psicométricas da Escala de Autoconceito Multidimensional em adolescentes brasileiros. Avaliação Psicológica, 14(2), 281–290. doi:  10.15689/ap.2015.1402.13.
  42. Sarriera, J. C., Paradiso, A. C., Abs, D., Soares, D. H. P., Silva, C. L., & Fiuza, P. J. (2013). O bem-estar pessoal dos adolescentes através do seu tempo livre. Estudos de Psicologia, 18, 285–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sastre, M. T. M., & Ferrière, G. (2000). Family “decline” and the subjective well-being of adolescentes. Social Indicators Research, 49, 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., & Stanton, G. C. (1976). Self-concept: validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research, 46(3), 407–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Song, I. S., & Hattie, J. (1985). Relationships between self-concept and achievement. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Suldo, S. M., Shaffer, E. J., & Riley, K. N. (2008). A social-cognitive-behavioral model of academic predictors of adolescents’ life satisfaction. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), 56–69. doi: 10.1037/1045-3830.23.1.56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Terry, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1995). The relationship between self-concept and life satisfaction in children. Social Indicators Research, 35, 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tian, L., Zhao, J., & Huebner, E. S. (2015). School-related social support and subjective well-being in school among adolescents: The role of self-system factors. Journal of Adolescence, 45, 138–158. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tomé, G., Camacho, I., Matos, M. G., & Simões, C. (2015). Influência da família e amigos no bem-estar e comportamento de risco - modelo explicativo. Psicologia, Saúde & Doenças, 16(1), 23-34. doi:  10.15309/15psd160104.
  50. Zeidner, M., & Olnick-Shemesh, D. (2010). Emotional intelligence and subjective well-being revisited. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 431–435. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhou, T., Wu, D., & Lin, L. (2012). On the intermediary function of coping styles: between self-concept and subjective well being of adolescents of Han, Qiang and Yi nationalities. Psychology, 3(2), 136–142. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.32021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina da Silva Hasse
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ângela Carina Paradiso
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Developmental and Personality PsychologyFederal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations