Skip to main content

Physician Mental Health: Depression and Anxiety

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Physician Mental Health and Well-Being

Abstract

In this chapter, the common and often comorbid illnesses of depression and anxiety in physicians throughout their professional trajectory are discussed, through a consolidated review of the literature and through a clinical lens. The epidemiology is discussed in detail, as physicians are known to have elevated rates of depression and anxiety as compared to the general population, with particularly alarming differences during medical school and residency. Additionally, several unique features of these illnesses in the physician population are discussed, such as the psychological contributors, barriers to accessing treatment, impact on the provision of healthcare, and impact on career satisfaction and quality of life. Next, the relevant developmental concerns related to physician depression and anxiety are discussed, particularly highlighting the high-risk period of medical training. And finally, treatment interventions that address physician depression and anxiety are explored, both at individual and programmatic levels, along with potential future directions for ongoing efforts to reduce the negative footprint that physician depression and anxiety otherwise have on this field and its practitioners.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

eBook
USD 16.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 69.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Allen I. Doctors and their careers. London: Policy Studies Institute; 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  • Appelbaum PS. Step up to the bar: avoiding discrimination in professional licensure. Psychiatr Serv. 2015;66:340–2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baker K, Sen S. Healing medicine's future: prioritizing physician trainee mental health. AMA J Ethic. 2016;18:604–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baldassin S, Alves TC, de Andrade AG, Nogueira Martins LA. The characteristics of depressive symptoms in medical students during medical education and training: a cross-sectional study. BMC Med Educ. 2008;8(60) doi:10.1186/1472-6920-8-60.

  • Baldwin Jr DC, Daugherty SR, Eckenfels EJ. Student perceptions of mistreatment and harassment during medical school. A survey of ten United States schools. West J Med. 1991;155(2):140.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Barlow DH, Ellard KK, Sauer-Zavala S, Bullis JR, Carl JR. The origins of neuroticism. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2014;9:481–96.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barrack RL, Miller LS, Sotile WM, Sotile MO, Rubash HE. Effect of duty hour standards on burnout among orthopaedic surgery residents. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006;449:134–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blatt SJ. The destructiveness of perfectionism: implications for the treatment of depression. Am Psychol. 1995;50(12):1003.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blatt SJ, Zuroff DC. Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition: two prototypes for depression. Clin Psychol Rev. 1992;12(5):527–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Block L, Wu AW, Feldman L, Yeh HC, Desai SV. Residency schedule, burnout and patient care among first-year residents. Postgrad Med J. 2013;89(1055):495–500.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brazeau CM, Shanafelt T, Durning SJ, Massie FS, Eacker A, Moutier C, Satele DV, Sloan JA, Dyrbye LN. Distress among matriculating medical students relative to the general population. Acad Med. 2014;89:1520–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brewin CB, Firth-Cozens J. Dependency and self-criticism as predictors of depression in young doctors. J Occup Health Psychol. 1997;2(3):242.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell S, Delva D. Physician do not heal thyself: survey of personal health practices among medical residents. Can Fam Physician. 2003;49:1121–7.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Clara IP, Cox BJ, Enns MW. Hierarchical models of personality and psychopathology: the case of self-criticism, neuroticism, and depression. Personal Individ Differ. 2003;35(1):91–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Conwell Y, Duberstein PR, Cox C, Herrmann JH, Forbes NT, Caine ED. Relationships of age and axis I diagnoses in victims of completed suicide: a psychological autopsy study. Am J Psychiatr. 1996;153:1001–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Costa P, McRae RR. Personality inventory (short form): Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness (NEO: Revised NEO Personality Inventory [NEOPI-R] and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]): professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crosby AE, Cheltenham MP, Sacks JJ. Incidence of suicidal ideation and behavior in the United States. Suicide Life Threat Behavior. 1999;29:131–40.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Davidson S, Schattner P. Doctors’ health-seeking behaviour: a questionnaire survey. Med J Aust. 2003;179:302–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Drolet BC, Rodgers S. A comprehensive medical student wellness program—design and implementation at Vanderbilt School of Medicine. Acad Med. 2010;85(1):103–10.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dunkley DM, Zuroff DC, Blankstein KR. Specific perfectionism components versus self-criticism in predicting maladjustment. Personal Individ Differ. 2006;40:665–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dyrbye LN, Thomas MR, Shanafelt TD. Systematic review of depression, anxiety, and other indicators of psychological distress among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Acad Med. 2006;81:354–73.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dyrbye LN, Thomas MR, Massie FS, et al. Burnout and suicidal ideation among U.S. medical students. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:334–41.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dyrbye LN, West CP, Satele D, Boone S, Tan L, Sloan J, Shanafelt TD. Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population. Acad Med. 2014;89:443–51.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eley DS, Cloninger CR, Walters L, Laurence C, Synnott R, Wilkinson D. The relationship between resilience and personality traits in doctors: implications for enhancing well being. PeerJ. 2013;1:e216.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Eneroth M, Sendén MG, Løvseth LT, Schenck-Gustafsson K, Fridner A. A comparison of risk and protective factors related to suicide ideation among residents and specialists in academic medicine. BMC Public Health. 2014; doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-271.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Enns MW, Cox BJ, Sareen J, Freeman P. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism in medical students: a longitudinal investigation. Med Educ. 2001;35(11):1034–42.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fahrenkopf AM, Sectish TC, Barger LK, Sharek PJ, Lewin D, Chiang VW, Edwards S, Wiedermann BL, Landrigan CP. Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008;336:488–91.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Figley CR, Kleber RJ, Kleber RJ, Gerson BPF. Cultural and societal dynamics. In: Figley CR, editor. Beyond the “victim”: secondary traumatic stress. New York: Springer US; 1995. p. 75–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Firth-Cozens J. The role of early family experiences in the perception of organizational stress: fusing clinical and organizational perspectives. J Occup Organ Psychol. 1992;65(1):61–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Firth-Cozens J. Individual and organizational predictors of depression in general practitioners. Br J Gen Pract. 1998;48(435):1647–51.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ford J, Klibert JJ, Tarantino N, Lamis DA. Savouring and self-compassion as protective factors for depression. Stress Health. 2016; doi:10.1002/smi.2687.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fortney L, Luchterhand C, Zakletskaia L, Zgierska A, Rakel D. Abbreviated mindfulness intervention for job satisfaction, quality of life, and compassion in primary care clinicians: a pilot study. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(5):412–20.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Fridner A, Belkić K, Minucci D, Pavan L, Marini M, Pingel B, Putoto G, Simonato P, Løvseth LT, Schenck-Gustafsson K. Work environment and recent suicidal thoughts among male university hospital physicians in Sweden and Italy: the Health and Organization among University Hospital Physicians in Europe (HOUPE) Study. Gend Med. 2011;8:269–79.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fried EI, Nesse RM, Zivin K, Guille C, Sen S. Depression is more than the sum of its parts: individual DSM symptoms have different risk factors. Psychol Med. 2014;44:2067–76.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Garelick A, Fagin L. Doctor to doctor: getting on with colleagues. Adv Psychiatr Treat. 2004;10(3):225–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gold KJ, Andrew LB, Goldman EB, Schwenk TL. “I would never want to have a mental health diagnosis on my record”: a survey of female physicians on mental health diagnosis, treatment, and reporting. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2016;43:51–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gramstad TO, Gjestad R, Haver B. Personality traits predict job stress, depression and anxiety among junior physicians. BMC Med Educ. 2013;13(1):1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grepmair L, Mitterlehner F, Loew T, Bachler E, Rother W, Nickel M. Promoting mindfulness in psychotherapists in training influences the treatment results of their patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Psychother Psychosom. 2007;76(6):332–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grotmol KS, Ekeberg Ø, Finset A, Gude T, Moum T, Vaglum P, Tyssen R. Parental bonding and self-esteem as predictors of severe depressive symptoms: a 10-year follow-up study of Norwegian physicians. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010;198(1):22–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grotmol KS, Gude T, Moum T, Vaglum P, Tyssen R. Risk factors at medical school for later severe depression: a 15-year longitudinal, nationwide study (NORDOC). J Affect Disord. 2013;146(1):106–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guille C, Speller H, Laff R, Epperson CN, Sen S. Utilization and barriers to mental health services among depressed medical interns: a prospective multisite study. J Grad Med Educ. 2010;2:210–4.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Guille C, Zhao Z, Krystal J, Nichols B, Brady K, Sen S. Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for the prevention of suicidal ideation in medical interns: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiat. 2015;72(12):1192–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harwood D, Hawton K, Hope T, Jacoby R. Psychiatric disorder and personality factors associated with suicide in older people: a descriptive and case-control study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001;16:155–65.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hem E, Grønvold N, Aasland O, Ekeberg Ø. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts among Norwegian physicians. Results from a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide sample. Eur Psychiatry. 2000;15:183–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D. The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010;78(2):169.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hojat M, Glaser K, Xu G, Veloski JJ, Christian EB. Gender comparisons of medical students' psychosocial profiles. Med Educ. 1999;33:342–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hoonpongsimanont W, Murphy M, Kim CH, Nasir D, Compton S. Emergency medicine resident well-being: stress and satisfaction. Occup Med. 2014;64:45–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hope V, Henderson M. Medical student depression, anxiety and distress outside North America: a systematic review. Med Educ. 2014;48:963–79.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hu T, Zhang D, Wang J. A meta-analysis of the trait resilience and mental health. Personal Individ Differ. 2015;76:18–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Irving JA, Dobkin PL, Park J. Cultivating mindfulness in health care professionals: a review of empirical studies of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2009;15(2):61–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Joules N, Williams DM, Thompson AW. Depression in resident physicians: a systematic review. Open J Depression. 2014;8:2014.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kay M, Mitchell G, Clavarino A, Doust J. Doctors as patients: a systematic review of doctors' health access and the barriers they experience. Br J Gen Pract. 2008;58:501–8.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kemper KJ, Mo X, Khayat R. Are mindfulness and self-compassion associated with sleep and resilience in health professionals? J Altern Complement Med. 2015;21(8):496–503.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Khoury B, Sharma M, Rush SE, Fournier C. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: a meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res. 2015;78(6):519–28.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kimo Takayesu J, Ramoska EA, Clark TR, Hansoti B, Dougherty J, Freeman W, Weaver KR, Chang Y, Gross E. Factors associated with burnout during emergency medicine residency. Acad Emerg Med. 2014;21(9):1031–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kotov R, Gamez W, Schmidt F, Watson D. Linking “Big” personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2010;136:768–821.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lloyd C, Gartrell NK. Psychiatric symptoms in medical students. Compr Psychiatry. 1984;25:552–65.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • López ACA, Sanderman R, Schroevers MJ. Mindfulness and self-compassion as unique and common predictors of affect in the general population. Mindfulness. 2016;7:1289–96.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Lown BA, Manning CF. The Schwartz center rounds: evaluation of an interdisciplinary approach to enhancing patient-centered communication, teamwork, and provider support. Acad Med. 2010;85:1073–81.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maida AM, Vásquez A, Herskovic V, Calderón JL, Jacard M, Pereira A, Widdel L. A report on student abuse during medical training. Med Teach. 2003;25:497–501.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mata DA, Ramos MA, Bansal N, Khan R, Guille C, Angelantonio ED, Sen S. Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms among resident physicians: a systematic review and me. JAMA. 2015;314:2373.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mata DA, Ramos MA, Kim MM, Guille C, Sen S. In their own words. Acad Med. 2016;91:1244–50.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matheson KM, Barrett T, Landine J, Mcluckie A, Soh NL, Walter G. Experiences of psychological distress and sources of stress and support during medical training: a survey of medical students. Acad Psychiatry. 2016;40:63–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mclean CP, Anderson ER. Brave men and timid women? A review of the gender differences in fear and anxiety. Clin Psychol Rev. 2009;29:496–505.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mclean CP, Asnaani A, Litz BT, Hofmann SG. Gender differences in anxiety disorders: prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:1027–35.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • McManus IC, Keeling A, Paice E. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: a twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates. BMC Med. 2004;2(1):1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miles SH. A challenge to licensing boards: the stigma of mental illness. JAMA. 1998;280:865.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Montgomery AJ, Bradley C, Rochfort A, Panagopoulou E. A review of self-medication in physicians and medical students. Occup Med. 2011;61:490–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Neff KD, Germer CK. A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69(1):28–44.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Olson K, Kemper KJ, Mahan JD. What factors promote resilience and protect against burnout in first-year pediatric and medicine-pediatric residents? J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015;20(3):192–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perry MY, Osborne WE. Health and wellness in residents who matriculate into physician training programs. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189(3):679–83.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peters M, King J. Perfectionism in doctors. BMJ. 2012;344:e1674.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pflugeisen BM, Drummond D, Ebersole D, Mundell K, Chen D. Brief video-module administered mindfulness program for physicians: a pilot study. Explore (NY). 2016;12(1):50–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prins JT, Heijden FMVD, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, Bakker AB, Wiel HBVD, Jacobs B, Gazendam-Donofrio SM. Burnout, engagement and resident physicians’ self-reported errors. Psychol Health Med. 2009;14:654–66.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Raab K. Mindfulness, self-compassion, and empathy among health care professionals: a review of the literature. J Health Care Chaplain. 2014;20:95–108.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Regehr C, Glancy D, Pitts A, LeBlanc VR. Interventions to reduce the consequences of stress in physicians: a review and meta-analysis. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2014;202:353–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rizvi R, Raymer L, Kunik M, Fisher J. Facets of career satisfaction for women physicians in the United States: a systematic review. Women Health. 2012;52:403–21.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts DL, Shanafelt TD, Dyrbye LN, West CP. A national comparison of burnout and work-life balance among internal medicine hospitalists and outpatient general internists. J Hosp Med. 2014;9:176–81.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rosta J, Aasland OG. Changes in the lifetime prevalence of suicidal feelings and thoughts among Norwegian doctors from 2000 to 2010: a longitudinal study based on national samples. BMC Psychiatry. 2013; doi:10.1186/1471-244x-13-322.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Rotenstein LS, Ramos MA, Torre M, Segal JB, Peluso MJ, Guille C, Sen S, Mata DA. Prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation among medical students. JAMA. 2016;316(21):2214–36.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Samaranayake CB, Fernando AT. Satisfaction with life and depression among medical students in Auckland, New Zealand. N Z Med J. 2011;124:7–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Ambani DS, Carson SA. Stress, workload, sexual well-being and quality of life among physician residents in training. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:462–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schernhammer E. Taking their own lives — the high rate of physician suicide. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2473–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schernhammer ES, Colditz GA. Suicide rates among physicians: a quantitative and gender assessment (meta-analysis). Am J Psychiatr. 2004;161:2295–302.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schroeder R, Brazeau CM, Zackin F, Rovi S, Dickey J, Johnson MS, Keller SE. Do state medical board applications violate the Americans with disabilities act? Acad Med. 2009;84:776–81.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schwenk TL, Gorenflo DW, Leja LM. A survey on the impact of being depressed on the professional status and mental health care of physicians. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:617–20.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sen S, Kranzler HR, Krystal JH, Speller H, Chan G, Gelernter J, Guille C. A prospective cohort study investigating factors associated with depression during medical internship. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:557–65.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Shanafelt TD, Balch CM, Bechamps GJ, Russell T, Dyrbye L, Satele D, Collicott P, Novotny PJ, Sloan J, Freischlag JA. Burnout and career satisfaction among American surgeons. Ann Surg. 2009;250:463–71.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shanafelt TD, Balch CM, Bechamps G, Russell T, Dyrbye L, Satele D, Collicott P, Novotny PJ, Sloan J, Freischlag J. Burnout and medical errors among American surgeons. Ann Surg. 2010;251:995–1000.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shanafelt TD, Balch CM, Bechamps G. Suicidal ideation among American surgeons. Arch Surg. 2011;146:54.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shiralkar MT, Harris TB, Eddins-Folensbee FF, Coverdale JH. A systematic review of stress-management programs for medical students. Acad Psychiatry. 2013;37(3):158–64.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sood A, Prasad K, Schroeder D, Varkey P. Stress management and resilience training among department of medicine faculty: a pilot randomized clinical trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2011;26(8):858–61.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sood A, Sharma V, Schroeder DR, Gorman B. Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) Program among department of radiology faculty: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Explore (NY). 2014;10(6):358–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stewart SM, Lam TH, Betson CL, Wong CM, Wong AM. A prospective analysis of stress and academic performance in the first two years of medical school. Med Educ. 1999;33(4):243–50.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tyssen R, Vaglum P. Mental health problems among young doctors: an updated review of prospective studies. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2002;10(3):154–65.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tyssen R, Vaglum P, Grønvold NT, Ekeberg Ø. Factors in medical school that predict postgraduate mental health problems in need of treatment. A nationwide and longitudinal study. Med Educ. 2001;35(2):110–20.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Warnecke E, Quinn S, Ogden K, Towle N, Nelson MR. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of mindfulness practice on medical student stress levels. Med Educ. 2011;45(4):381–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Warren R, Smeets E, Neff K. Self-criticism and self-compassion: risk and resilience. Curr Psychiatr Ther. 2016;15(12.) 18–21, 24–28, 32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Waterman AD, Garbutt J, Hazel E, Dunagan WC, Levinson W, Fraser VJ, Gallagher TH. The emotional impact of medical errors on practicing physicians in the United States and Canada. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2007;33(8):467–76.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • West CP, Tan AD, Habermann TM, Sloan JA, Shanafelt TD. Association of resident fatigue and distress with perceived medical errors. JAMA. 2009;302:1294–300.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • West CP, Shanafelt TD, Kolars JC. Quality of life, burnout, educational debt, and medical knowledge among internal medicine residents. JAMA. 2011;306:952–60.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Woloschuk W, Harasym PH, Temple W. Attitude change during medical school: a cohort study. Med Educ. 2004;38:522–34.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zinbarg RE, Mineka S, Bobova L, Craske MG, Vrshek-Schallhorn S, Griffith JW, et al. Testing a hierarchical model of neuroticism and its cognitive facets latent structure and prospective prediction of first onsets of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders during 3 years in late adolescence. Clin Psychol Sci. 2016;4(5):805–24. doi:10.1177/2167702615618162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zuroff DC, Stotland S, Sweetman E, Craig JA, Koestner R. Dependency, self-criticism and social interactions. Br J Clin Psychol. 1995;34(4):543–53.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kathryn Baker M.D. .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Baker, K., Warren, R., Abelson, J.L., Sen, S. (2017). Physician Mental Health: Depression and Anxiety. In: Brower, K., Riba, M. (eds) Physician Mental Health and Well-Being. Integrating Psychiatry and Primary Care. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55583-6_6

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55583-6_6

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-55582-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-55583-6

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics