Skip to main content

Rethinking Diversity, Inclusion, and Inclusiveness: The Quest to Better Understand Indicators of Community Enrichment and Well-Being

Part of the Community Quality-of-Life and Well-Being book series (CQLWB)

Abstract

Communities thrive on diversity in the long-run. Our communities are filled with diverse individuals and diverse groups of residents who, though they share a common place, may not experience their communities exactly the same as their fellow residents. Broad strokes are needed in our quests to better understand diversity, inclusion, and inclusiveness indicators in our communities. These three concepts are the building-blocks to high levels of community well-being. This chapter synthesizes recent conceptualizations and research on these three concepts. Diversity is described as a community resource. Inclusion is highlighted as a community process, and inclusiveness is described as a community outcome. Three tools are proposed to leverage these building-blocks to increase community well-being. The three tools are policy, development, and enrichment in communities. This chapter proposes that community policy is best suited to address changes regarding indicators of diversity. Community development is best suited for inclusion, and community enrichment is best concentrated on inclusiveness.

Keywords

  • Diversity
  • Inclusion
  • Inclusiveness
  • Community indicators
  • Community enrichment
  • Community development
  • Public policy

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-55408-2_2
  • Chapter length: 21 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-55408-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Abbott, P., & Wallace, C. (2012). Social quality: A way to measure the quality of society. Social Indicators Research, 108(1), 153–167.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Alcock, P. (1997). The discipline of social policy. In P. Alcock, A. Erskinem, & M. May (Eds.), The student’s companion to social policy (pp. 5–22). Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, S. A., & Sabatelli, R. M. (1990). Differentiating differentiation and individuation: Conceptual and operation challenges. American Journal of Family Therapy, 18(1), 32–50.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Atkinson, A. B., Marlier, E., & Nolan, B. (2004). Indicators and targets for social inclusion in the European Union. Journal of Common Market Studies (JCMS), 42(1), 47–75.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Azmat, F., Fujimoto, Y., & Rentschler, R. (2014). Exploring cultural inclusion: Perspectives from a community arts organisation. Australian Journal of Management, 40(2), 375–396.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Babacan, H. (2005). Challenges of inclusion: Cultural diversity, citizenship and engagement. In Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Engaging Communities. Queensland Department of Main Roads. Available online at: http://core.kmi.open.ac.uk/download/pdf/11574960.pdf

  • Barsh, R. L. (1993). Measuring human rights: Problems of methodology and purpose. Human Rights Quarterly, 15(1), 87–121.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Berman, Y., & Phillips, D. (2000). Indicators of social quality and social exclusion at national and community level. Social Indicators Research, 50(3), 329–350.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bicchi, F. (2006). ‘Our size fits all’: Normative power Europe and the Mediterranean. Journal of European Public Policy, 13(2), 286–303.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bilu, Y. (1988). The inner limits of communitas: A covert dimension of pilgrimage experience. Ethos, 16(3), 302–325.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Black, A., & Hughes, P. (2001). The identification and analysis of indicators of community strength and outcomes. FaHCSIA Occasional Paper, (3). Joondalup: Edith Cowan University. Available online at: http://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2012/no.3.pdf

  • Brackertz, N., & Kenley, R. (2002). Evaluating community facilities in local government: Managing for service enablement. Journal of Facilities Management, 1(3), 283–299.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brewer, M. B. (2007). The importance of being we: Human nature and intergroup relations. American Psychologist, 62(8), 728–738.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Britz, J. J. (2008). Making the global information society good: A social justice perspective on the ethical dimensions of the global information society. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(7), 1171–1183.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brooke, J. K., & Tyler, T. R. (2010). Diversity and corporate performance: A review of the psychological literature. North Carolina Law Review, 89, 715–748.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cherchye, L., Moesen, W., & Puyenbroeck, T. (2004). Legitimately diverse, yet comparable: On synthesizing social inclusion performance in the EU. Journal of Common Market Studies (JCMS), 42(5), 919–955.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Christens, B. D., & Speer, P. W. (2015). Community organizing: Practice, research, and policy implications. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9(1), 193–222.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Correa-Velez, I., Gifford, S. M., & Barnett, A. G. (2010). Longing to belong: Social inclusion and wellbeing among youth with refugee backgrounds in the first three years in Melbourne. Australia. Social Science & Medicine, 71(8), 1399–1408.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cox, E., & Caldwell, P. (2000). Making policy social. In I. Winter (Ed.), Social capital and public policy in Australia (pp. 43–73). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crompton, J. L., & McKay, S. L. (1997). Motives of visitors attending festival events. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 425–439.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DECC. (2012). Equality, diversity and inclusion strategy: Delivery action plan and impact indicators. United Kingdom: Department of Energy and Climate Change. Available online at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/47888/6028-equality-diversity-inclusion-strategy.pdf

  • Dewhurst, C. K., N’Diaye, D. B., & MacDowell, M. (2014). Cultivating connectivity: Folklife and inclusive excellence in museums. Curator: The Museum Journal, 57(4), 455–472.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dye, T. R. (1992). Understanding public policy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Emery, M., & Flora, C. (2006). Spiraling-up: Mapping community transformation with community capitals framework. Community Development, 37(1), 19–35.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fabiansson, C. (2006). Being young in rural settings: Young people‘s everyday community affiliations and trepidations. Rural Society, 16(1), 47–61.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Falk, I., Golding, B., & Balatti, J. (2000). Building communities: ACE, lifelong learning and social capital. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia, University of Tasmania Launceston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Farnworth, L., & Muñoz, J. P. (2009). An occupational and rehabilitation perspective for institutional practice. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 32(3), 192–198.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Florida, R. L. (2005). Cities and the creative class. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foote, J. (2005). Intercultural dialogue, cultural policies and the compendium. Technical Report. Bonn, Germany: ERICarts. Available online at http://pike.kw.nl/files/projects/kw/2010/p4ie/panorama/source/resources-1.0/resources/publications%20used/COMPENDIUM%20Intercultural%20Dialog_John%20Foot_2004.pdf

  • Gareis, K. C., Barnett, R. C., Ertel, K. A., & Berkman, L. F. (2009). Work-family enrichment and conflict: Additive effects, buffering, or balance? Journal of Marriage and Family, 71(3), 696–707.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez, C. M., & Tyler, T. R. (2008). The psychology of enfranchisement: Engaging and fostering inclusion of members through voting and decision-making procedures. Journal of Social Issues, 64(3), 447–466.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31(1), 72–92.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grillo, M. C., Teixeira, M. A., & Wilson, D. C. (2010). Residential satisfaction and civic engagement: Understanding the causes of community participation. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 451–466.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hall, A. (2007). Social policies in the World Bank paradigms and challenges. Global Social Policy, 7(2), 151–175.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and nature of man. New York: Mentor Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herzberg, F. I. (1987). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review, 65(5), 109–120, including a retrospective commentary (reprint from 1968).

    Google Scholar 

  • Hirst, P. (2002). Renewing democracy through associations. The Political Quarterly, 73(4), 409–421.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hirst, P. Q. (1994). Associative democracy: New forms of economic and social governance. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ibarra, H. (1993). Personal networks of women and minorities in management: A conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 56–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, T. (2007). Mainstreaming sustainability in local economic development practice. Local Economy, 22(1), 12–26.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, S. E., May, K. A., & Whitney, K. (1995). Understanding the dynamics of diversity in decision making teams. In R. A. Guzzo & E. Salas (Eds.), Team effectiveness and decision making in organizations (pp. 204–261). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johanson, K., Glow, H., & Kershaw, A. (2014). New modes of arts participation and the limits of cultural indicators for local government. Poetics, 43, 43–59.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kanai, J. M. (2014). Whither queer world cities? Homo-entrepreneurialism and beyond. Geoforum, 56, 1–5.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kochan, T., Bezrukova, K., Ely, R., Jackson, S., Joshi, A., Jehn, K., et al. (1996). The development and validation of the workforce diversity questionnaire: An instrument to assess interactions in diverse workgroups. Management Communication Quarterly, 9(3), 296–337.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Laurence, J. (2011). The effect of ethnic diversity and community disadvantage on social cohesion: A multi-level analysis of social capital and interethnic relations in UK communities. European Sociological Review, 27(1), 70–89.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Laverack, G. (2006). Improving health outcomes through community empowerment: A review of the literature. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 24(1), 113–120.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, S. J., Kim, Y., & Phillips, R. (2016). Exploring the intersection of community well-being and community development. In C. Wong & R. Phillips (Eds.), Community well-being and community development. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lloyd, C., Tse, S., & Deane, F. P. (2006). Community participation and social inclusion: How practitioners can make a difference. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 5(3), 185–194.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lockwood, M. (2010). Good governance for terrestrial protected areas: A framework, principles and performance outcomes. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(3), 754–766.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Magnusson, E. (2011). Women, men, and all the other categories: Psychologies for theorizing human diversity. Nordic Psychology, 63(2), 88–114.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marschall, M., & Shah, P. R. (2007). The attitudinal effects of minority incorporation examining the racial dimensions of trust in urban America. Urban Affairs Review, 42(5), 629–658.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matarrita-Cascante, D., & Brennan, M. A. (2012). Conceptualizing community development in the twenty-first century. Community Development, 43(3), 293–305.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, F. A. (1998). Strategic culture change: The door to achieving high performance and inclusion. Public Personnel Management, 27(2), 151–160.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Milliken, F., & Martins, L. (1996). Searching for common threads: Understanding the multiple effects of diversity in organizational groups. Academy of Management Review, 21(2), 402–433.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morris, M. L., & Madsen, S. R. (2007). Advancing work—Life integration in individuals, organizations, and communities. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(4), 439–454.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mohanty, I., & Tanton, R. (2012). A well-being framework with adaptive capacity (No. 12/17). National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling, University of Canberra. Available online at: http://natsem.com.au/storage/1-WP%2017%20-%20Well-being%20and%20adaptive%20capacity%20-%20Mohanty%20and%20Tanton.pdf

  • Mohr, K., Backman, K. F., Gahan, L. W., & Backman, S. J. (1993). An investigation of festival motivations and event satisfaction by visitor type. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 1(3), 89–97.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mor-Barak, M. E., & Cherin, D. A. (1998). A tool to expand organizational understanding of workforce diversity: Exploring a measure of inclusion-exclusion. Administration in Social Work, 22(1), 47–64.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mulligan, M., Scanlon, C., & Welch, N. (2008). Renegotiating community life: Arts, agency, inclusion and wellbeing. Gateways: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement, 1, 48–72.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nyden, P., Maly, M., & Lukehart, J. (1997). The emergence of stable racially and ethnically diverse urban communities: A case study of nine U.S. cities. Housing Policy Debate, 8(2), 491–534.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • O’Brien, J. (2009). Sociology as an epistemology of contradiction. Sociological Perspectives, 52(1), 5–22.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Orthner, D. K., Esther, D., & Stawarski, C. (1990). Community satisfaction: Implications for army communities. ARI Research Note 90–96. Chapel Hill, NC: United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oxoby, R. (2009). Understanding social inclusion, social cohesion, and social capital. International Journal of Social Economics, 36(12), 1133–1152.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pagani, C., & Robustelli, F. (2010). Young people, multiculturalism, and educational interventions for the development of empathy. International Social Science Journal, 61(200–201), 247–261.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Palich, N., & Edmonds, A. (2013). Social sustainability: Creating places and participatory processes that perform well for people. Environment Design Guide (November 2013). Available online at: http://environmentdesignguide.com.au/media/misc%20notes/EDG_78_NP.pdf

  • Paolini, S., Hewstone, M., Cairns, E., & Voci, A. (2004). Effects of direct and indirect cross-group friendships on judgments of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland: The mediating role of an anxiety-reduction mechanism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(6), 770–786.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perkins, D. D., Hughey, J., & Speer, P. W. (2002). Community psychology perspectives on social capital theory and community development practice. Community Development, 33(1), 33–52.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pettigrew, T. F. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49(1), 65–85.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pettigrew, T. F., & Martin, J. (1989). Organizational inclusion of minority groups: A social psychological analysis. In J. P. Van Oudenhoven & T. M. Willemsen (Eds.), Ethnic minorities: Social psychological perspectives. Swets North America: Berwyn, PA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751–783.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, R., & Pittman, R. H. (2009). A framework for community and economic development. In R. Phillips & R. H. Pittman (Eds.), An introduction to community development (pp. 3–19). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Plaut, V. C. (2014). Diversity science and institutional design. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(1), 72–80.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ponic, P., & Frisby, W. (2010). Unpacking assumptions about inclusion in community-based health promotion: perspectives of women living in poverty. Qualitative Health Research, 20(11), 1519–1531.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Prilleltensky, I., & Gonick, L. S. (1994). The discourse of oppression in the social sciences: Past, present, and future. In E. J. Trickett, R. J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 145–177). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pstross, M., Talmage, C. A., & Knopf, R. C. (2014). A story about storytelling: Enhancement of community participation through catalytic storytelling. Community Development, 45(5), 525–538.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Putnam, R. D. (2007). E pluribus unum: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century the 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture. Scandinavian Political Studies, 30(2), 137–174.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rath, T., & Harter, J. (2010). Well-being: The five essential elements. New York, NY: Gallup Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reutter, L. I., Stewart, M. J., Veenstra, G., Love, R., Raphael, D., & Makwarimba, E. (2009). “Who do they think we are, anyway?”: Perceptions of and responses to poverty stigma. Qualitative Health Research, 19(3), 297–311.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reynal-Querol, M. (2005). Does democracy preempt civil wars? European Journal of Political Economy, 21(2), 445–465.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Roberson, Q. M. (2006). Disentangling the meanings of diversity and inclusion in organizations. Group and Organization Management, 31(2), 212–236.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J. W., Jr., & Green, G. P. (Eds.). (2011). Introduction to community development: Theory, practice, and service-learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodgers, B. N., Greve, J., & Morgan, J. S. (1968). Comparative social administration. New York, NY: Atherton Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, M., & Ryan, R. (2001). The triple bottom line for sustainable community development. Local Environment, 6(3), 279–289.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Royal, M. A., & Rossi, R. J. (1996). Individual-level correlates of sense of community: Findings from workplace and school. Journal of Community Psychology, 24(4), 395–416.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Salvaris, M. (2007). Cultural well-being indicators in programs and policy making. Technical Report. Melbourne, Australia: Cultural Development Network. Available online at http://www.culturaldevelopment.org.au/downloads/CulturalIndicatorsreport.pdf

  • Salvaris, M., & Woolcock, G. (2010). Changing society’s DNA codes: Democracy and the global movement for community progress measures. Australian Journal of Social Issues (Australian Council of Social Service), 45(1), 25–40.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Scarrow, S. (2005). Political parties and democracy in theoretical and practical perspectives: Implementing intra-party democracy. Washington, D.C.: The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scerri, A., & James, P. (2010). Communities of citizens and ‘indicators’ of sustainability. Community Development Journal, 45(2), 219–236.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schulenkorf, N. (2012). Sustainable community development through sport and events: A conceptual framework for sport-for-development projects. Sport Management Review, 15(1), 1–12.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schumacher, K. L., Stewart, B. J., & Archbold, P. G. (1998). Conceptualization and measurement of doing family caregiving well. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(1), 63–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shortall, S. (2004). Social or economic goals, civic inclusion or exclusion? An analysis of rural development theory and practice. Sociologia Ruralis, 44(1), 109–123.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • SHRM. (2009). Global diversity and inclusion: Perceptions, practices, and attitudes. Technical Report. Alexandria, Virginia: Society for Human Resource Management. Available online at: http://graphics.eiu.com/upload/eb/DiversityandInclusion.pdf

  • Silver, H. (1994). Social exclusion and social solidarity: Three paradigms. International Labour Review, 133(5, 6), 531–578.

    Google Scholar 

  • Simon, C. A. (2015). Public policy: Preferences and outcomes (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sindre, G. M. (2014). Internal party democracy in former rebel parties. Party Politics. Available online at: http://ppq.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/09/12/1354068814550436.abstract

  • Smart Richman, L., & Leary, M. R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: A multimotive model. Psychological Review, 116(2), 365–383.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, A. N., Morgan, W. B., King, E. B., Hebl, M. R., & Peddie, C. I. (2012). The ins and outs of diversity management: The effect of authenticity on outsider perceptions and insider behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(S1), E21–E55.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Talmage, C. A. (2014). Development. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 1601–1604). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Talmage, C. A. (2015). Making the ordinary extraordinary: A fresh look at satisfaction in communities. In F. Maggino (Ed.), A new research agenda for improvements in quality of life, social indicators research series (pp. 61–86). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Talmage, C. A., Dombrowski, R., Pstross, M., Peterson, C. B., & Knopf, R. C. (2016). Discovering diversity downtown: Questioning Phoenix. Metropolitan Universities Journal, 26(1), 113–145.

    Google Scholar 

  • Talmage, C. A., Peterson, C. B., & Knopf, R. C. (2017). Punk rock wisdom: An emancipative psychological social capital approach to community well-being. In Handbook of Community Well-Being Research (pp. 11–38). Netherlands: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tausch, N., Hewstone, M., Kenworthy, J., Cairns, E., & Christ, O. (2007). Cross-community contact, perceived status differences, and intergroup attitudes in Northern Ireland: The mediating roles of individual-level versus group-level threats and the moderating role of social identification. Political Psychology, 28(1), 53–68.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • The City of Edmonton. (n.d.). Diversity and inclusion framework and implementation plan. Edmonton, Alberta. Available online at: http://www.edmonton.ca/city_government/documents/PDF/Final_Diversity__Inclusion_Framework__Implementation_Plan.pdf

  • Thomas, D. A., & Ely, R. J. (1996). Making differences matter: A new paradigm for managing diversity. Harvard Business Review, 74, 79–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, J. A., & Bunderson, J. S. (2001). Work-nonwork conflict and the phenomenology of time beyond the balance metaphor. Work and Occupations, 28(1), 17–39.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thomson, M. (2010). Literature review: Outcomes and indicators of welcoming and inclusive communities and workplaces initiatives. Technical Report. Vancouver, BC: Social Planning and Research Council on BC. Available online at: http://www.amssa.org/sites/default/files/kcfinder/files/program/diversity/WelcomeBC_report.pdf

  • Tibaldeo, R. F. (2014). Reframing and practicing community inclusion. The relevance of philosophy for children. Childhood and Philosophy, 10(20), 401–420.

    Google Scholar 

  • Townsend, E. (1997). Inclusiveness: A community dimension of spirituality. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(3), 146–155.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tsui, A., Egan, T., & O’Reilly, C. (1992). Being different: Relational demography and organizational attachment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 549–579.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Office of Personnel Management. (2011). Guidance for agency-specific diversity and inclusion strategic plans. Washington, D.C.: United States Office of Personnel Management. Available online at: https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/diversity-and-inclusion/reports/diagencyspecificstrategicplanguidance.pdf

  • Vertovec, S. (2012). “Diversity” and the social imaginary. European Journal of Sociology, 53(3), 287–312.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Watts, R. J., Trickett, E. J., & Birman, D. (1994). Conclusion: Convergence and divergence in human diversity. In E. J. Trickett, R. J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 452–464). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Welzel, C., & Deutsch, F. (2012). Emancipative values and non-violent protest: The importance of ‘ecological’ effects. British Journal of Political Science, 42(02), 465–479.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Welzel, C., Inglehart, R., & Deutsch, F. (2005). Social capital, voluntary associations and collective action: Which aspects of social capital have the greatest ‘civic’ payoff? Journal of Civil Society, 1(2), 121–146.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, L. (2006). Developing a model for the measurement of social inclusion and social capital in regional Australia. Social Indicators Research, 75(3), 335–360.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wirth, J. H., & Williams, K. D. (2009). They don’t like our kind’: Consequences of being ostracized while possessing a group membership. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 12(1), 111–127.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Craig Talmage .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Talmage, C., Knopf, R.C. (2017). Rethinking Diversity, Inclusion, and Inclusiveness: The Quest to Better Understand Indicators of Community Enrichment and Well-Being. In: Kraeger, P., Cloutier, S., Talmage, C. (eds) New Dimensions in Community Well-Being. Community Quality-of-Life and Well-Being. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55408-2_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55408-2_2

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-55407-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-55408-2

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)