Intersections Between Identity and Security

  • Julian Richards


The second chapter provides a comprehensive review of the link between identity theory and security, promoting the argument in so doing that “an understanding of identity theory provides a key epistemological framework for discussions of contemporary security challenges.” The analysis frames itself around the interplay between macro- and micro-level approaches to identity formation and politicization, which, in the world of security studies is often articulated as the question of “push and pull factors”. A comprehensive review of identity theory is undertaken in this chapter, starting with the work of William James on “multiple selves” and moving into debates about symbolic interactionism and performativity in the contemporary context.


  1. Abbott F (1968) Islam and Pakistan. Alpaca, Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Afshar H (2008) Can I See Your Hair? Choice, Agency and Attitudes: The Dilemma of Faith and Feminism for Muslim Women Who Cover. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(2): 411–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aly KM (2015) Becoming Arab in London: Performativity and the Undoing of Identity. London, Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson B (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. London, Verso.Google Scholar
  5. Avineri S (1991) Marxism and Nationalism. Journal of Contemporary History 26(3–4): 637–57Google Scholar
  6. Barth F (1969) Introduction. In Barth F (ed.) Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Cultural Difference. London, George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  7. Blee K (2007) Ethnographies of the Far Right. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 36: 119–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boucher G (2006) The Politics of Performativity: A Critique of Judith Butler. Parrhesia 1: 112–41.Google Scholar
  9. Brown SD and Hoskins A (2010) Terrorism in the New Memory Ecology: Mediating and Remembering the 2005 London Bombings. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression 2(2): 87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brubaker R (2009) Ethnicity, Race and Nationalism. Annual Review of Sociology 35: 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burke PJ and Stets JE (2009) Identity Theory. Oxford, Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butler J (1993) Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Collier P and Hoeffler AE (1998) On the Economic Causes of Civil War. Oxford Economic Papers 50: 563–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooley CH (1902) Human Nature and Social Order. New York, Scribner.Google Scholar
  15. Colley L (2008) Taking Stock of Taking Liberties: A Personal View by Linda Colley. London, British Library.Google Scholar
  16. Croft S (2012) Securitizing Islam: Identity and the Search for Security. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dornschneider S (2016) Whether to Kill. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edmunds J (2012) The ‘New’ Barbarians: Governmentality, Securitization and Islam in Western Europe. Contemporary Islam 6: 67–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gellner E (1987) Culture, Identity and Politics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Gellner E (1990) Lecture: “Identity and Ethnicity”, 21 November 1990. Cambridge, New Hall.Google Scholar
  21. Hasan M (2014) Moeen Ali Interview: ‘I am a Muslim, Yes, But I am also Very English. Huffington Post. Accessed 9 August 2016.
  22. Henderson M (2014) You’re Playing for England, Moeen Ali, not Your Religion. The Telegraph. Accessed 9 August 2016.
  23. Hogg MA, Terry DJ, and White KM (1995) A Tale of Two Theories: A Critical Comparison of Identity Theory with Social Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly 58(4): 255–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huntington SP (1993) The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs 72(3): 22–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Husain E (2007) The Islamist. London, Penguin.Google Scholar
  26. Husain E and Nawaz M (2009) Putting the Record Straight. The Guardian. Accessed 4 August 2016.
  27. James W (1890) Principles of Psychology. New York, Holt Rinehart and Winston.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuhn MH (1964) Major Trends in Symbolic Interaction Theory in the Past Twenty-Five Years. The Sociological Quarterly 5: 61–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maikovich AK (2005) A New Understanding of Terrorism using Cognitive Dissonance Principles. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 35(4): 373–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Malešević S (2010) The Sociology of War and Violence. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. McCauley CR and Segal MD (1989) Terrorist Individuals and Terrorist Groups: The Normal Psychology of Extreme Behavior. In Groebel J and Goldstein JF (eds.) Terrorism. Seville: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla.Google Scholar
  32. Mead M (1963, originally published 1935) Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. New York, Morrow.Google Scholar
  33. Modood T (2005) Multicultural Politics: Racism, Ethnicity and Muslims in Britain. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Meer N, Dwyer C and Modood T (2010) Embodying Nationhood? Conceptions of British National Identity, Citizenship, and Gender in the ‘Veil Affair’. The Sociological Review 58(1): 84–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nietzsche F (1956) The Birth of Tragedy and the Geneology of Morals. New York, Doubleday.Google Scholar
  36. Ramet P (1984) Nationalism and Federalism in Yugoslavia, 1963–83. Bloomington, Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Rattansi A (2011) Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Richards J (1993) Mohajir Subnationalism and the Mohajir Qaumi Movement in Sindh Province Pakistan. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  39. Schwartz SJ, Dunkel CS, and Waterman AS (2009) Terrorism: An Identity Theory Perspective. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 32: 537–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sky News (2016) Muslims Refuse to Bury Priest Killer Kermiche. Accessed 4 August 2016.
  41. Smith AD (1991) Theories of Nationalism. London, Duckworth.Google Scholar
  42. Stets J (2005) Examining Emotions in Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly 68(1): 39–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stryker S (2008) From Mead to a Structural Symbolic Interactionism and Beyond. Annual Review of Sociology 34: 14–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Swann WB Jr (1983) Self-Verification: Bringing Social Reality into Harmony with the Self. In J Suls and A Greenwald (eds.) Psychological Perspectives on the Self. Hillsdale NJ, Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Swann WB Jr (2005) The Self and Identity Negotiation”. Interaction Studies 6(1): 69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Taheri A (1989) Crescent in a Red Sky. London, Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  47. Tajfel, H and Turner JC (1979) An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Conflict. In Austin WG and Worchel S (eds.) The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Monterey, Brooks-Cole.Google Scholar
  48. Tarlo E (2007) Hijab in London: Metamorphosis, Resonance and Effects. Journal of Material Culture 12(2): 131–56.Google Scholar
  49. Turing A (1950) Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Mind 59: 433–60.Google Scholar
  50. Ukiwo U (2003) Politics, Ethno-Religious Conflicts and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria. Journal of Modern African Studies 41(1): 115–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vice News (2014) From ISIS to the Islamic State (documentary). Accessed 5 August 2016.
  52. Wallerstein I (1979) The Capitalist World Economy. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Williamson M and Khiabany G (2010) UK: The veil and the politics of racism. Race and Class 52(2): 85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julian Richards
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BuckinghamBuckinghamUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations