Treating Errors in Learners’ Writing: Techniques and Processing of Corrective Feedback

Chapter
Part of the Second Language Learning and Teaching book series (SLLT)

Abstract

Although the utility of written feedback is now acknowledged, the identification of the most effective corrective technique still is a matter of debate. In this chapter, we compare the effects of direct and indirect written feedback on the short-term uptake and the long-term retention of the correction in order to investigate which one could be more effective in enhancing language learning. Furthermore, we examine how students process the received correction. For this purpose, a research was led on twelve Italian as foreign language learners. The outcomes show that both direct and indirect feedback are effective in the short-term but less effective in the long-term; indirect feedback is slightly more effective on the short term, while direct feedback slightly promotes the long-term retention of the correction. Moreover, the level of engagement showed by learners while they process the correction might influence the efficacy of feedback itself.

Keywords

Written corrective feedback Error correction Editing Reformulation Uptake Retention 

References

  1. Allwright, R. L., Woodley, M. P., & Allwright, J. M. (1988). Investigating reformulation as a practical strategy for the teaching of academic writing. Applied Linguistics, 9(3), 236–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashwell, T. (2000). Patterns of teacher response to student writing in a multiple-draft composition classroom: Is content feedback followed by form feedback the best method? Journal of Second Language Writing, 9, 227–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bitchener, J. (2008). Evidence in support of written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 102–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2008). The value of written corrective feedback for migrant and international students. Language Teaching Research, 12, 409–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2010). Raising the linguistic accuracy level of advanced L2 writers with written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19(4), 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chandler, J. (2003). The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12, 267–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Doughty, C. J. (2008). Instructed SLA: Constraints, compensation, and enhancement. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 256–310). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  8. Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. J. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197–261). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ellis, R. (2005). Principles of instructed language learning. System, 33(2), 209–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellis, R. (2010). Epilogue. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 335–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ellis, R., Sheen, Y., Murakami, M., & Takashima, H. (2008). The effects of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback in an English as a foreign language context. System, 36, 353–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ferris, D. R. (1995). Can advanced ESL students be taught to correct their most serious and frequent errors? CATESOL Journal, 8, 41–62.Google Scholar
  13. Ferris, D. R. (1999). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996). Journal of Second Language Writing, 8, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ferris, D. R. (2002). Treatment of error in second language writing classes. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ferris, D. R. (2003). Response to student writing: Implications for second language students. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Ferris, D. R. (2010). Second language writing research and written corrective feedback in SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 181–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferris, D. & Helt, M. (2000). Was Truscott right? New evidence on the effects of error correction in L2 writing classes. Paper presented at AAAL Conference, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
  18. Ferris, D. R., & Roberts, B. (2001). Error feedback in L2 writing classes: How explicit does it need to be? Journal of Second Language Writing, 10, 161–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hedgcock, J. S., & Lefkowitz, N. (1994). Feedback on feedback: Assessing learner receptivity in second language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 3, 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hyland, F. (1998). The impact of teacher written feedback on individual writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 7, 255–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hyland, F. (2003). Focusing on form: student engagement with teacher feedback. System, 31, 217–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lalande, J. F. (1982). Reducing composition errors: An experiment. The Modern Language Journal, 66, 140–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leki, I. (1991). The preferences of ESL students for error correction in college-level writing classes. Foreign Language Annals, 24, 203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Long, M. H. (1985). A role for instruction in second language acquisition: Task-based language teaching. Modelling and Assessing Second Language Acquisition, 18, 77–99.Google Scholar
  25. Polio, C., Fleck, C., & Leder, N. (1998). “If only I had more time”: ESL learners’ changes in linguistic accuracy on essay revisions. Journal of Second Language Writing, 7(1), 43–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qi, D., & Lapkin, S. (2001). Exploring the role of noticing in a three-stage second language writing task. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10, 277–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reid, J. (2005). Ear’ learners and error in US college writing. In P. Bruthiaux et al. (Eds.), Directions in applied linguistics (pp. 117–278). Toronto: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  28. Robb, T., Ross, S., & Shortreed, I. (1986). Salience of feedback on error and its effect on EFL writing quality. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Roberts, B. J. (1999). Can error logs raise more than consciousness? The effects of error logs and grammar feedback on ESL students’ final drafts. Unpublished master’s thesis. California State University, Sacramento.Google Scholar
  30. Semke, H. (1984). The effects of the red pen. Foreign Language Annals, 17, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sheen, Y. (2007). The effect of focused written corrective feedback and language aptitude on ESL learners’ acquisition of articles. TESOL Quarterly, 41, 255–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Storch, N., & Wigglesworth, G. (2010). Learners’ processing, uptake, and retention of corrective feedback on writing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 303–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Swain, M. (2006). Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced language proficiency. In H. Byrne (Ed.), Advanced language learning: The contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky (pp. 95–108). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  34. Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1998). Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together. Modern Language Journal, 83, 320–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2003). Talking it through: Two French immersion learners’ response to reformulation. International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Van Beuningen, C. (2010). Corrective feedback in L2 writing: Theoretical perspectives, empirical insights, and future directions. IJES, International Journal of English Studies, 10(2), 1–28.Google Scholar
  37. Vygotsky, L. (1979). Consciousness as a problem of psychology of behavior. Soviet Psychology, 17, 3–35.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Bordeaux MontaignePessacFrance
  2. 2.University Roma TreRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations