Cyberspace pp 141-151 | Cite as

Some Criminal Aspects of Cybersecurity

  • J. Martín RamírezEmail author
Part of the Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications book series (ASTSA)


These pages are meant to be a modest step in order to help the prevention and the combat of cybercrime, raising awareness that the birth of the ubiquitous “cyber spectrum” brings with it a parallel presence of plenty of ‘new’ crimes. The cybersecurity ecosystem, besides obvious benefits, also presents new potential specific cybercriminal threats, criminal opportunities, and vulnerabilities, as well as physical and psychological harm to individuals. After describing the cybercrime phenomenon and enumerating the spectrum of it; the importance of cyber-security awareness through public education stressing emerging threats and risks is highlighted in the hope that individual internet users will take basic security precautions. CYBERCRIME IS SILENT VIOLENCE, THEREFORE ME MUST PREVENT CYBERCRIMES!!!


Cyberspace Cybersecurity Cybercrime 



Thanks are due to the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, at Stanford University, for the facilities given to the author in order to write this paper during his stay, as a Visiting Fellow. Part of it was used during an unpublished lecture on November 3rd, 2013 at Istanbul (Turkey), on the occasion of the 60th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs.

Conflict of Interest

The author confirms that this article content has no conflicts of interest.


  1. Angwin J (2014) Dragnet nation: a quest for privacy, security and freedom in a world of relentless surveillance. Times BooksGoogle Scholar
  2. Calderoni F (2010) The European legal framework on cybercrime: striving for an effective implementation. Crime Law Soc Change 54(5):339–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cayón J, Cortijo B (2016) The dilema security vs. freedom. In: 41st CICA on Mapping the Cyberspace, Nebrija University, Madrid, 1–3 June 2016Google Scholar
  4. Council of Europe (2001) Treaty No. 185 Convention on Cybercrime, Budapest, 23.XI.2001.
  5. Economist (2014) Governments’ relationship with the tech sector is hideously complicated. Econ, 22 Feb 2014Google Scholar
  6. Encyclopedia Britannica (2014) Retrieved from: (24 Feb 2014)
  7. Galexia (2011) An overview of international cyber-security awareness raising and educational initiatives. Australian Communications and Media AuthorityGoogle Scholar
  8. García-Segura LA, Ramírez JM (eds) (2016) Mapping the cyberspace. An emerging priority challenge. Universidad Antonio de Nebrija, MadridGoogle Scholar
  9. Gartner Inc. (2015) 6.4 billion connected “things” will be in use in 2016, up 30 percent from 2015, Gartner report November 10, 2015STAMFORD, Conn.,
  10. Grabosky P, Smith R (1998) Crime in the digital age. Federation Press, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  11. Herley C (2009) So long, and no thanks for the externalities: the rational rejection of security advice by users. New Security Paradigms Workshop, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Higgins KJ (2012) Turning tables: ID’ing the hacker behind the keyboard. Dark Read, 2 Oct 2012Google Scholar
  13. International Cyber Security Protection Alliance (ICSPA) (2012) Project 2020. Scenarios for the future of cybercrime—white paper for decision makers. European Cybercrime Centre (EC3), EuropolGoogle Scholar
  14. International Telecommunication Union (2011) Understanding cybercrime: a guide for developing countries. Explanatory Report to the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention, ETS No. 185Google Scholar
  15. Koops B-J (2010) Cybercrime legislation. Electron J Comp Law 14(3)Google Scholar
  16. Lucas E (2015) Cyberphobia: identity, trust, security and the Internet. BloomsburyGoogle Scholar
  17. OECD (2002) Recommendation of the council concerning guidelines for the security of information systems and networks—towards a culture of security, OECD, 25 July 2002Google Scholar
  18. Otero P (2013) Terrorism and organized crime in the Spanish criminal law: reasons for specific punishment and punitive responses. In: Walters TK, Monaghan R, Ramírez JM (eds) Radicalization, terrorism, and conflict. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, pp 104–129Google Scholar
  19. Pocar F (2004) New challenges for international rules against cyber-crime. Eur J Crim Policy Res 10(1):27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ramírez JM (2014) Moving toward peace. In: Ramírez JM, Morrison C, Kendall AJ (eds) Conflict, violence, terrorism, and their prevention. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, pp 191–206Google Scholar
  21. Ramírez JM, Alfaro PJ (2013) Cyberspace and cyber attacks. In: 60th Pugwash conference on science and world affairs on dialogue, disarmament, & regional and global security, Istanbul, Turkey, 1–5 November 2013Google Scholar
  22. Segura-Serrano A (2006) Internet regulation and the role of international law. In: Von Bogdandy A, Wolfrum R (eds) Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 10:191–272Google Scholar
  23. Sorkin DE (2001) Technical and legal approaches to unsolicited electronic mail. Univ San Francisco Law Rev 35(2):359–360Google Scholar
  24. Tejada de la Fuente E (2016) Legislative reform on the fight against cybernetic crimes. In: 41st CICA on Mapping the Cyberspace, Nebrija University, Madrid, 1–3 June 2016Google Scholar
  25. United Nations (2002) Guidelines for the prevention of crime. Economic and Security Council resolution 2002/13Google Scholar
  26. United Nations (2003) General assembly resolution 57/239, 31 Jan 2003Google Scholar
  27. UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) (2013) Comprehensive study on cybercrime. United Nations, New York.
  28. Wall DS (2007) Cybercrime: the transformation of crime in the information age. Polity Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  29. Webopedia (2014) Cybercrime definition. Retrieved from: (21 Feb 2014)

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hoover InstitutionStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Nebrija-Santander Chair on Risk and Conflict ManagementNebrija UniversityMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations