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Biochemistry and Physiology of Vitamins in Euglena

  • Fumio WatanabeEmail author
  • Kazuya Yoshimura
  • Shigeru Shigeoka
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 979)

Abstract

Euglena gracilis Z requires vitamins B1 and B12 for growth. It takes up and accumulates large amounts of these exogenous vitamins through energy-dependent active transport systems. Except for these essential vitamins, E. gracilis Z has the ability to synthesize all human vitamins. Euglena synthesizes high levels of antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E, and, thus, are used as nutritional supplements for humans and domestic animals. Methods to effectively produce vitamins in Euglena have been investigated.

Previous biochemical studies indicated that E. gracilis Z contains several vitamin-related novel synthetic enzymes and metabolic pathways which suggests that it is a highly suitable organism for elucidating the physiological functions of vitamins in comparative biochemistry and biological evolution. E. gracilis Z has an unusual biosynthetic pathway for vitamin C, a hybrid of the pathways found in animals and plants. This chapter presents up-to-date information on the biochemistry and physiological functions of vitamins in this organism.

Keywords

Biosynthetic pathway Essential nutrients Euglena gracilisFat-soluble vitamins Nutritional supplements Water-soluble vitamins 

Abbreviations

ACP

Acyl-carrier protein

AdoB12

Adenosylcobalamin

ALase

Aldonolactonase

AsA

L-ascorbic acid

B12

Vitamin B12

cADPR

Cyclic ADP-ribose

cAMP

Cyclic AMP

CN-B12

Cyanocobalamin

CoA

co-enzyme A

DAsA

Dehydroascorbate

D-GalUA

D-galacturonate

D-GlcUA

D-glucuronate

D-Man

D-mannose

DXP

1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate

IF

Intrinsic factor

L-Gal

L-galactose

L-GalA

L-galactonate

L-GalL

L-galactono-1,4-lactone

L-GulA

L-gulonate

L-GulL

L-gulono-1,4-lactone

MCM

Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase

MDAsA

Monodehydroascorbate

MeB12

Methylcobalamin

MetH

Methionine synthase

MMAA

Methylmalonic aciduria type A protein

MVA

Mevalonate

NAADP

Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NADK

NAD+ kinase

OH-B12

Hydroxocobalamin

PABA

p-aminobenzoate

PL

Pyridoxal

PLP

Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate

PM

Pyridoxamine

PMP

Pyridoxamine-5′-phospahte

PN

Pyridoxine

PNP

Pyridoxine-5′-phoshate

RNR

Ribonucleotide reductase

SHMT

Serine hydroxymethyltransferase

TC

Transcobalamin II

TDP

Thiamine diphosphate

TMP

Thiamine monophosphate

TTP

Thiamine triphosphate

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fumio Watanabe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kazuya Yoshimura
    • 2
  • Shigeru Shigeoka
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, School of AgriculturalBiological and Environmental Sciences, Tottori UniversityTottoriJapan
  2. 2.Department of Food and Nutritional SciencesCollege of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chubu UniversityKasugaiJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of AgricultureKindai UniversityNaraJapan

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