Comorbidity with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Chapter
Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)

Abstract

Primary headaches and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent in childhood and may cause impairment in social and school functioning. We review the literature and present the results of two populational studies we have conducted in Brazil in order to discuss the possible comorbidity between ADHD with specific headache syndromes or with headache characteristics. The role of methodological aspects is also presented, as well as their influence in the findings of clinical and populational studies. According to our results, we concluded that migraine and ADHD are comorbid and may add to the impact on quality of life, mental health, school performance, and other important outcomes in the lives of children and adolescents. In children with any migraine subtype (migraine overall, episodic migraine, probable migraine, and chronic migraine), ADHD diagnosis was most significantly influenced by frequency of headache attacks, headache severity, nausea during attacks, phonophobia, psychosocial adjustment difficulties, and a below-average school achievement. Providers and educators should be aware of the association. By identifying children with ADHD and comorbid headaches, practitioners will be more capable to offer a complete and holistical therapeutic approach, maximizing the chance for improvement and the outcomes of therapy.

References

  1. 1.
    Perquin CW, Hazebroek-Kampschreur AA, Hunfeld JA, et al. Pain in children and adolescents: a common experience. Pain. 2000;87(1):51–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goodman JE, McGrath PJ. The epidemiology of pain in children and adolescents: a review. Pain. 1991;46(3):247–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abu-Arafeh I, Razak S, Sivaraman B, Graham C. Prevalence of headache and migraine in children and adolescents: a systematic review of population-based studies. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010;52(12):1088–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arruda M, Bigal M. Migraine and migraine subtypes in preadolescent children: association with school performance. Neurology. 2012;79(18):1881–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wober-Bingol C, Wober C, Uluduz D, et al. The global burden of headache in children and adolescents—developing a questionnaire and methodology for a global study. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:86.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Powers SW, Patton SR, Hommel KA, Hershey AD. Quality of life in paediatric migraine: characterization of age-related effects using PedsQL 4.0. Cephalalgia. 2004;24(2):120–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Galli F, Canzano L, Scalisi TG, Guidetti V. Psychiatric disorders and headache familial recurrence: a study on 200 children and their parents. J Headache Pain. 2009;10(3):187–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Varni JW, Limbers CA, Burwinkle TM. Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: a comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2007;5:43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guidetti V, Galli F, Fabrizi P, et al. Headache and psychiatric comorbidity: clinical aspects and outcome in an 8-year follow-up study. Cephalalgia. 1998;18(7):455–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guidetti V, Galli F. Psychiatric comorbidity in chronic daily headache: pathophysiology, etiology, and diagnosis. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2002;6(6):492–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guidetti V, Alberton S, Galli F, Salvi E. Gender, migraine and affective disorders in the course of the life cycle. Funct Neurol. 2009;24(1):29–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vannatta K, Getzoff EA, Powers SW, Noll RB, Gerhardt CA, Hershey AD. Multiple perspectives on the psychological functioning of children with and without migraine. Headache. 2008;48(7):994–1004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bruijn J, Locher H, Passchier J, Dijkstra N, Arts WF. Psychopathology in children and adolescents with migraine in clinical studies: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2010;126(2):323–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anttila P, Sourander A, Metsahonkala L, Aromaa M, Helenius H, Sillanpaa M. Psychiatric symptoms in children with primary headache. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43(4):412–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Virtanen R, Aromaa M, Koskenvuo M, et al. Externalizing problem behaviors and headache: a follow-up study of adolescent Finnish twins. Pediatrics. 2004;114(4):981–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arruda M, Bigal M. Behavioral and emotional symptoms and primary headaches in children: a population-based study. Cephalalgia. 2012;32(15):1093–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arruda MA, Guidetti V, Galli F, Albuquerque RC, Bigal ME. Migraine, tension-type headache, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood: a population-based study. Postgrad Med. 2010;122(5):18–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arruda MA, Arruda R, Guidetti V, Bigal ME. Psychosocial adjustment of children with migraine and tension-type headache—a nationwide study. Headache. Feb 2015;55(Suppl 1):39–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldman LS, Genel M, Bezman RJ, Slanetz PJ. Diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. JAMA. 1998;279(14):1100–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(6):942–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arruda MA, Querido CN, Bigal ME, Polanczyk GV. ADHD and mental health status in Brazilian school-age children. J Atten Disord. 2015;19(1):11–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scahill L, Schwab-Stone M. Epidemiology of ADHD in school-age children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2000;9(3):541–5, vii.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Faraone SV, Sergeant J, Gillberg C, Biederman J. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: is it an American condition? World Psychiatry. 2003;2(2):104–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bird HR. Epidemiology of childhood disorders in a cross-cultural context. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1996;37(1):35–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Timimi S, Taylor E. ADHD is best understood as a cultural construct. Br J Psychiatry. 2004;184:8–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Organization WH. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Polanczyk G, Jensen P. Epidemiologic considerations in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review and update. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008;17(2):245–60, vii.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Villa TR, Correa Moutran AR, Sobirai Diaz LA, et al. Visual attention in children with migraine: a controlled comparative study. Cephalalgia. 2009;29(6):631–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Riva D, Usilla A, Aggio F, Vago C, Treccani C, Bulgheroni S. Attention in children and adolescents with headache. Headache. 2012;52(3):374–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Genizi J, Gordon S, Kerem NC, Srugo I, Shahar E, Ravid S. Primary headaches, attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities in children and adolescents. J Headache Pain. 2013;14:54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Strine TW, Okoro CA, McGuire LC, Balluz LS. The associations among childhood headaches, emotional and behavioral difficulties, and health care use. Pediatrics. 2006;117(5):1728–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lateef TM, Merikangas KR, He J, et al. Headache in a national sample of American children: prevalence and comorbidity. J Child Neurol. 2009;24(5):536–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mattos P, Serra-Pinheiro MA, Rohde LA, Pinto D. Apresentação de uma versão em português para uso no Brasil do instrumento MTA-SNAP-IV de avaliação de sintomas de transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade e sintomas de transtorno desafiador e de oposição. Rev Psiquiatr Rio Gd Sul. 2006;28(3):290–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bordin I, Mari J, Caieiro M. Validation of the Brazilian version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Rev ABP-APAL. 1995;17(2):55–66.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Arruda MA, Arruda R, Guidetti V, Bigal ME. ADHD is comorbid to migraine in childhood: a population-based study. J Atten Disord. 2017 Jun 1:1087054717710767. doi:  10.1177/1087054717710767. [Epub ahead of print].
  37. 37.
    HCSotIH S. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition. Cephalalgia. 2004;24 Suppl 1:9–160.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Queiroz LP, Peres MF, Kowacs F, et al. Chronic daily headache in Brazil: a nationwide population-based study. Cephalalgia. 2008;28(12):1264–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goodman A, Lamping DL, Ploubidis GB. When to use broader internalising and externalising subscales instead of the hypothesised five subscales on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38(8):1179–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fleitlich B, Goodman R. Social factors associated with child mental health problems in Brazil: cross sectional survey. BMJ. 2001;323(7313):599–600.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haas DC, Sheehe PR. Dextroamphetamine pilot crossover trials and n of 1 trials in patients with chronic tension-type and migraine headache. Headache. 2004;44(10):1029–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eccleston C, Palermo TM, Williams AC, et al. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;5:CD003968.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fisher E, Law E, Palermo TM, Eccleston C. Psychological therapies (remotely delivered) for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;14:2014.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Evans SW, Owens JS, Bunford N. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2014;43(4):527–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chan E, Fogler JM, Hammerness PG. Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents: a systematic review. JAMA. 2016;315(18):1997–2008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child and Adolescent NeurologistGlia InstituteRibeirao PretoBrazil
  2. 2.NeurologistTeva Pharmaceuticals Research and DevelopmentFrazerUSA

Personalised recommendations