Advertisement

Headache and Epilepsy

  • Nathan Watemberg
  • Vincenzo Guidetti
Chapter
Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)

Abstract

Both headaches and epilepsy received attention in the Bible, in ancient texts, and in scriptures and were addressed to by the forefathers of medicine. Hippocrates around 400 BC provided a detailed description of a man with an aura followed by an intense migraine headache. Epileptic attacks were already described in Babylonian scriptures about 1000 BC. Thereafter, the two entities received significant attention by physicians throughout the centuries. Eventually J.H. Jackson in 1888, before much of the physiology and biochemistry of the central nervous system were discovered, may have been the first to identify the overlap between epilepsy and headaches, as he reported “I have seen cases intermediate in type between migraine, epileptiform seizures and epilepsy proper.” W. Gowers (1907) added to this observation: “migraine is given a place in the borderland of epilepsy, the two maladies are sometimes mistaken, and more often their distinction is difficult” [1].

References

  1. 1.
    Gowers WR. The borderland of epilepsy. Churchill, London, 1907.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nye BL, Thadani VM. Migraine and epilepsy: review of the literature. Headache. 2015;55:359–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sowell KS, Youssef PE. The comorbidity of migraine and epilepsy in children and adolescents. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2016;23:83–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oakley CB, Kossoff CH. Migraine and epilepsy in the pediatric population. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2014;18:402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lateef TM, Kui L, Nelson KB, et al. Physical comorbidity of migraine and other headaches in US adolescents. J Pediatr. 2012;161:308–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kelley SA, Hartman AL, Kossof EH. Comorbodity of migraine in children with epilepsy presenting to a tertiary care center. Neurology. 2012;79:468–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Toldo I, Perissinotto E, Menegazzo F, et al. Comorbidity between headache and epilepsy in a pediatric headache center. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:235–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Papavasiliou AS, Bregianni M, Nikaina I, et al. Pediatric headache and epilepsy comorbidity in the pragmatic clinical setting. Neuropediatrics. 2016;47:107–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Comorbidity in adults with epilepsy - United states - 2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Report. 2013;62:849–53.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Velioglu SK, Boz C, Ozmenoglu M. The impact of migraine on epilepsy: a prospective prognosis study. Cephalalgia. 2005;25:525–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hersdorffer DC, Ludvigsnon P, Hauser WA, et al. Co-occurrence of major depression or suicide attempt with migraine with aura and risk for unprovoked seizure. Epilepsy Res. 2007;75:220–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lennox WG, Lennox-Buchtal MA. Epilepsy and related disorders. Boston: Little Brown; 1960.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Perucca P, Terzhagi M, Manni R. Status epilepticus migrainosus: clinical, epidemiologic and imaging characteristics. Neurology. 2010;75:373.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kossoff EH, Andermann F. Migraine and epilepsy. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2010;17:117–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Belcastro V. Is it migralepsy? Still don’t know. Headache. 2015;55:1466–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chianchetti C, Pruna D, Ledda M. Epileptic seizures and headache/migraine: a review of types of association and terminology. Seizure. 2013;22:679–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Avraham SB, Har-Gil M, Watemberg N. Acute confusional migraine in an adolescent: response to intravenous valproate. Pediatrics. 2010;125:956–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kellinghaus C, Kotagal P. Lateralizing value of Todd's palsy in patients with epilepsy. Neurology. 2004;62:289–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International classification of headache disorders (ICHD-III beta ), third edition, beta version. Cephalalgia. 2013;33:629–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ekstein D, Shachter SC. Postictal headache. Epilepsy Behav. 2010;19:151–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Belcastro V, Striano P, Parisi P. Is it migralepsy? No evidence yet. Neurol Sci. 2013;34:1837–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sweney MT, Newcomb TM, Swoboda KJ. The expanding spectrum of neurological phenotypes in children with ATP1A3 mutations, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, CAPOS and beyond. Pediatr Neurol. 2015;52:56–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pellacani S, Sicca F, DiLOrenzo C, et al. The revolution in migraine genetics: from aching channels disorders to a next-generation medicine. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016;10:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nobile C, Striano P. PRRT2: a major cause of infantile epilepsy and other paroxysmal disorders of childhood. Prog Brain Res. 2014;213:141–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rajapakse T, Buchalter J. The borderline of migraine and epilepsy in children. Headache Curr. 2016;56:1071–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Verrotti A, Laino D, Rinaldi VE. Clinical dissection of childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut and prognostic implication. Eur J Neurol. 2016;23:241–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Panayiotopoulos CP, Michael M, Sanders S, et al. Benign childhood focal epilepsies: assessment of established and newly recognized syndromes. Brain. 2008;131:2264–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dirani M, Yamak W, Beydoun A. Panayiotopoulos syndrome presenting with respiratory arrest: a case report and literature review. Epilepsy Behav Case Rep. 2015;20:12–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wirrell EC, Hamiwka LD. Do children with rolandic epilepsy have a higher prevalence of migraine than those with other partial epilepsies or nonepilepsy controls? Epilepsia. 2006;47:1674–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Clarke T, Baskurt Z, Strug LJ, et al. Evidence of shared genetic risk factors for migraine and rolandic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50:2428–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Addis L, Chiang T, Clarke T, et al. Evidence for linkage for migraine in rolandic epilepsy to known 1q23 FHM2 and novel 17q22 genetic loci. Genes Brain Behav. 2014;13:333–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dai AI, Demiryürek S. The clinical implications of Todd paralysis in children with benign rolandic epilepsy. J Child Neurol. 2016;31:289–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schankin CJ, Rémi J, Klaus I, et al. Headache in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. J Headache Pain. 2011;12:227–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Costa C, Prontera P, Sarchielli P, et al. A novel ATP1A2 gene mutation in familial hemiplegic migraine and epilepsy. Cephalalgia. 2014;34:68–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Allen AS, Berkovic SF. Cossette p, et al: Epi4k consortium; epilepsy Phenome/genome project. De novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. Nature. 2013;501:217–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rogawski MA. Migraine and epilepsy—shared mechanisms within the family of episodic disorders. In: Noebels JL, Avoli M, Rogawski MA, Olsen RW, Delgado-Escueta AV, editors. Jasper's basic mechanisms of the epilepsies (internet). 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Meng H, HQ X, Yu L, et al. The SCN1A gene mutation database: updating information and analysis of the relationships among genotype, functional alteration, and phenotype. Hum Mutat. 2015;36:573–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fan C, Wolking S, Lehmann-Horn F, et al. Early-onset familial hemiplegic migraine due to a novel SCN1A mutation. Cephalalgia. 2016;36:1238–47.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Anagnostou ME, YS NG, Taylor RW, et al. Epilepsy due to mutations in the mitochondrial polymerase gamma (POLG) gene: a clinical and molecular genetic review. Epilepsia. 2016;57:1531–45.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Janssen W, Quaegebeur A, Van Goethem G, et al. The spectrum of epilepsy caused by POLG mutations. Acta Neurol Belg. 2016;116:17–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Berger M, Speckmenn EJ, Pape HC, Gorji A. Spreading depression enhances human neocortical excitability in vitro. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:558–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parisi P, Piccioli M, Villa MP, et al. Hypothesis on neuropathophysiological mechanisms linking epilepsy and headache. Med Hypotheses. 2008;70:1150–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Papetti L, Nicita F, Parisi P, et al. Headache and epilepsy: how are they connected? Epilepsy Behav. 2013;26:383–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McKormick DA, Contreras D. On the cellular and network bases of epileptic seizures. Annu Rev Physiol. 2001;63:815–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Crepeau AZ. Migralepsy: a borderland of wavy lines. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014;14:427.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Herreras O, Largo C, Ibarz JM, et al. Role of neuronal synchronizing mechanisms in the propagation of spreading depression in the in vivo hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1994;14:7087–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Larrosa B, Pastor J, Lopez-Aquado L, Herreras O. A role for glutamate and glia in the fast network oscillations preceeding spreading depression. Neuroscience 2006;141:1057–68.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Iannetti P, Parisi P, Spalice A, et al. Addition of verapamil in the treatment of severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Epilepsy Res. 2009;85:89–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    HELP Study Group. Multicenter study on migraine and seizure-related headache in patients with epilepsy. Yonsei Med J. 2010;51:219–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric Neurology Unit, Meir Medical CenterTel Aviv University Medical SchoolKfar SabaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics and Child and Adolescent NeuropsychiatrySapienza University of RomeRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations